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Analyzing Agribusiness Value Chains: Asa Starter of Competitiveness in the Future

Youssef Hamada Abd El-rahman, 2021

Within the value chain analysis, how much value is created is cannot be avoided, and how it is distributed. This is an extra accounting point of view, and we titled it a value assessment approach. Particularly for the context of agribusiness chains, the question of how much value each actor creates, and how it gets is on the constant discussion. Sincethe main characteristic of agri-food chains is the different farm and at farm gate marketstructures,whereprimarystagesshowaspectsofcompetitionwhile industry and distribution tend to show degrees of market power, this conductsfrequentconflictsbetweenactors.Beingabletodevelopindicators in this regard, helps to better understand and tackle those conflicts. Where, development organizations have been playing a central role enriching the body of point of view. Mainly with intervention objectives and with the aimofgivingtheirtechniciansatooltoworkwithvaluechainactors,there has been a proliferation of manuals and guidelines. This isimportant particularlytotheagri-foodsector,asdevelopingcountriesenterintofood globalvaluechainsasprimaryproducers,inmostcaseswithscarceornone value-added, and showing poor conditions for the actorsinvolved. Havingobtainedthesetools,approaches,andpointofviewsthatoperate asmethodologicalframeworksfortheanalysisofagribusinessvaluechains, and with a better understanding of the multidimensional aspects of the concept, further analysis should be oriented to develop mathematical framework models and objective indicators to measure competitiveness and performance in agribusiness value chains. Where,the aim of this research is to compare three methods of trace competitiveness and performanceinagribusinessvaluechains.TheeffectsofAgribusinessvalue chains assessment (AVCA), environmental agribusiness value chains assessment (EAVCA) and environmentally extended input-output agribusinessanalysis(EE-IOAA)asavaluechainconfirmedthattheentire waterconsumptionformaximumcultivationreducedby28.159and28.181% inside the old and new lands of Egypt and that the overall region of crops isprobably931749.034and319914.983hectaresplantedwithintheantique and new lands of Egypt, in addition to the anticipated model presents a higher net benefit than the current model. The general net profit of the heterogeneouscaseemergesas186530.800and69395.275millionEPbetter than the full of thehomogeneous case (166259.954 and 20074.227 million EP) after applying the model, further to the entire cost of crops in heterogeneouscase40629.067and13102.565millionEPthatdidnotreach thetotalhomogeneouscase(34968.102and8436.099millionEP).Thisend resultmayadditionallyimplythatthedistinctionamongtheheterogeneous instances had a massive impact on the optimal solution. According to financial and economic analyzes, the inner annual rate of return (IRR) became better than the current model of the area and increased by 14.98 and 118.32% within the vintage and new lands of Egypt, and the absolute riskofoptimalcultivationisdecreasedby23.31and65.61%.Forthisreason, the Agribusiness value chain assessment (AVCA) as a value chain can be applied in the agriculture sector within the land ofEgypt.

Socioeconomic, Biophysical, and Environmental Impacts of Raised Beds in Irrigated Wheat: A Case Study from Egypt

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, Sami Sabry, Moustafa Azab Abo El-Nour, 2021

Raised beds (RB) are hailed as means to mitigate the problem of excessive irrigation. However, their adoption and impacts in Egypt are not well-documented. This paper is based on survey data collected from a sample of 691 wheat fields drawn from three major wheat-producing provinces of Egypt. Using area-weights for upward aggregation, we estimated that 19.3% of total wheat area in the three provinces is cultivated with raised beds. We applied the endogenous switching regression model to analyze the socioeconomic, biophysical, and environmental impacts of RB. Model results showed that the adoption of RB led to a 937 kg/ha (12.79%) increase in yield, a US$77.60/ha (9.47%) increase in gross margins, an 824.63 m3/ha (15.05%) reduction in irrigation water application, 16.7% reduction in seeding rate, 5.56% increase in water productivity, and an 11.80% reduction in downside yield risk. Adoption of RB didn’t have significant effect on soil salinity and quantities of fertilizer and labor inputs. These results show that RB can provide panacea to several interrelated socioeconomic, biophysical, and environmental problems associated with irrigation. The policy implication of our findings is that Egypt and other similar countries can benefit from embracing RB as part of the technology packages promoted by their national agricultural extension systems. The benefits to these countries will increase if they invest more on research for adapting and perfecting the RB technology including its mechanization and its efficacy in soil salinity management.

Food Losses and Wastage along the Wheat Value Chain in Egypt and Their Implications on Food and Energy Security, Natural Resources, and the Environment

Sami Sabry, Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, Moustafa Azab Abo El-Nour, 2021

Pushing yield frontiers of cereals and legumes is becoming increasingly difficult, especially in drylands. This paper argues and provides empirical evidence that food loss and wastage constitute a sizeable proportion of the total wheat supply in Egypt. By following the life cycle of food and using standard measurement protocols, we estimated the levels of food loss and wastage along the wheat value chain in Egypt and their socioeconomic, biophysical, and environmental implications. About 4.4 million tons (20.62% of total wheat supply from domestic production and imports in 2017/2018) is estimated to be lost or wasted in Egypt which is also associated with the wastage of about 4.79 billion m3 of water, and 74.72 million GJ of energy. This implies that if Egypt manages to eliminate, or considerably reduce, wheat-related losses and wastage, it will save enough food to feed 21 million more people from domestic production and hence reduce wheat imports by 37%, save 1.1 billion USD of much-needed foreign exchange, and reduce emissions of at least 260.84 million kg carbon dioxide-equivalent and 8.5 million kg of methane. Therefore, investment in reducing food loss and wastage can be an effective strategy to complement ongoing efforts to enhance food security through productivity enhancement in Egypt.

Efficient enzymatic conversion of lactose in milk using fungal?-galactosidase

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020

?-galactosidase (?-gal, E.C. was detected in different fungal cultures and their fermentation factors wereoptimized, as well as ?-gal was purified and characterized from the selected fungal strain. Moreover, the potential impact of fungal ?-gal on free lactose-flavored milk production was investigated. Aspergillus terreusNRRL 280showed the highest ?-gal specific activity which grown at 37 ?C for 7 days compared to other fungal strains. Also,A. terreusNRRL 280 showed their highest ?-gal activity at the optimized growth conditions of 37 ?C, pH 4.0 for 7days. ?-gal enzyme was purified from A. terreusNRRL 280 using 40-60% ammonium sulfate saturation with22.15% yield and 1.11 purification fold. Purified ?-gal exhibited their optimal activity at 60 ?C, pH 6.0, and 80min of incubation time, as well as it was is quite stable for the heat treatment. ?-gal activity was significantlyenhanced with 5 mM Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+, while it was were sensitive to Fe3+ and EDTA. The highest lactosehydrolysis (94.16%) and 23.9 g/l of glucose were recorded for flavored raw skim milk treated with 7.0 U/l milkof ?-gal at 6th day of storage period. The flavored milk made from raw full cream cow milk treated with 5.25 U/lof ?-gal was recorded the highest sensorial attributes scores followed by those of made from raw skim milk withthe same ?-gal level. It could be concluded that using of fungal ?-gal in lactose-free flavored milk may prove to bebeneficial for intolerant lactose people.


Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020

Dairy goat mastitis is a disease of great economic importance worldwide as in dairy cows. Bee venom (BV) is synthesized in the venom glands of worker. It exhibits a variety of biological activity including anti-inflammatory effects and antibacterial action. The current study was intended to assess whether ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) has therapeutic potential against goats sub-clinical mastitis and improves the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk. Honey bees were fed pollen supplement diets containing a different conc. of Spirulinaplatensisalga (40, 50 and 60%). worker’s sealed brood, bee strength and Bee venom weight were determined. The effect of ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) on goats sub-clinical mastitis was investigated. Hematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed. Milk samples were cultured to isolate and identificate of responsible pathogens. Somatic cell count (SCC), chemical and bacteriological propertied of milk were determined. The results of bee feeding showed that the colonies fed pollen supplement diet containing 50 % S. platensis(GB) had the maximum bee venom weight, area of sealed worker brood and mean number of combs covered with bees. From animal data, the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment showed the highest hemoglobin, erythrocytes, Ig G level and the lowest leucocytes count in blood. The blood total protein, albumin and globulin levels slightly decreased in BV treated groups after 14 days of treatment compared to control group. Also, milk analysis revealed that the normal levels of casein, fat, lactose, calcium and the lowest counts of total bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, coliformes and somatic cells were recorded with the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment. Hence, alga- fed bee venom treatment increased the rate of bacteriological treatment and reduced SCC at gland compared with control. Isolated pathogenic bacteria were coagulase- negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and E. coli. It could be concluded that the sub -clinical mastitis goats - intramamary injection with alga -fed bee venom improves the immune response of animals against the etiological agent of mastitis, the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk and may be helpful in improving recovery in dairy goats

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The Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research

is published quarterly by the Agricultural Research Center covers the results of research in different aspects of agricultural sciences in Arabic and English language .

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