Farmers' Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change in some Egyptian villages

Abstract: Abstract
The main objectives of this research were to:
Explores farmers’ understanding the concept of climate, their perceptions of climate variability and change, their Source of information about climate change, their perceptions of the causes of climate change, their perceptions of climate Impact on agriculture, their adaptation to climate change and their needs to adapt,
Focus group discussion as a form of qualitative analysis was used for data collection from male and female participants. Focus group guide was developed to covers the research objectives.
The research data were collected in November 2012 from Fayoum, Gharbia and kafr El sheikh governorates. Two villages were chosen randomly from each governorate. 24 focus groups were held: half with all male participants and half with all female participants. A total of 240 men and women were interviewed through focus group discussions.
1- Farmer's understanding the concept of climate
- In all focus groups the word climate is not familiar to the participants. Climate was most commonly referred to in all focus groups as weather, atmosphere or seasons cycle.
- Some educated participants and TV watcher slightly explains the meaning of climate change concept
2- Farmer's perceptions of climate change
- Participants were aware about climate changes, they stated their perception that the current climate is behaving differently than in the past with: un- seasonal rainfall, changes in seasonal rainfall patterns, long dry spells, frequent droughts, land salinity and sandy wind.
- Most participants in all focus groups connect between high temperature and shortage of water and land salinity.
- In the viewpoints of women participants from Fayoum governorate the water is enough to wash clothes and utensils but it is not enough for irrigation.
- Some women participants from Gharpia walk about two kilometers to bring water for drinking in summer.
3- Source of information about climate change
- Participant's sources of information about climate change were: TV, personal experiences, face to face communication, farmer field school, improving irrigation project and agricultural cooperatives.
- Mass media play a role in transmitting information about climate change. In male focus groups many male participant listen to the news every day and follow forecasting news. Women watch more daytime TV shows but they like dramas and entertainment.
4- Farmer's perceptions of the causes of climate change
- Norms and believes have high effect on farmer's perceptions of the causes of climate change. All participants show a high level of fatalism.
- Mass media play a role in transmitting information about the causes of climate change. Some participants mentioned to other country as a cause of climate change and connected their local situation to the rest of the world.
- Many participants from all focus groups connected burning rice straw, smoke of cars and factory to climate change
5- Farmer's perceptions of climate Impact on agriculture
- The research indicated that the link between temperature and crop production is widely recognized by the participants. They perceived that their production of rice, wheat, maize, fruits, and vegetables have been affected by an increasing variation in temperature and drought occurrences.
- Majority of participants mentioned to increasing of pests and disease due to increased temperature.
- In all focus groups perceive that increased variation in temperature effect their animals, poultry and its production of milk and eggs.
- In the viewpoints of women, water stress and high temperature affect child health, storing of wheat, maize, rice, onion, and garlic. Women participants also perceived that the price of vegetable, fruit, meat and chicken are raised as a result of increasing temperature.
6- Farmer's adaptation to climate change and their needs to adapt
- Most participants have done nothing to adapt to changing circumstance.
-Arrange of traditionally and locally practices were flowed by participants such as:
- Reducing chemical fertilization as it increases temperature of the plant especially with water shortage.
-Covering sensitive vegetables with straw, planting in lines as saving water practice, change poultry drinking water regularly especially in summer, gap filling, re-planting, shifting from crops to livestock or leave part of land uncultivated, changing tomato planting dates and growing hybrid crops like maize.
- Focus groups participants feel that these practices are insufficient for proper adjustment to climate variability and change.
- Shortage of land and money, low levels of technology and scarcity of information on climate change are some of the major obstacles in adapting to climate change.
- Farmer's adaptation needs are: information about climate change and adaptation, new seeds varieties, credit, agricultural machines, improving irrigation and drainage system, and poultry vaccine

Publication year 2013
Organization Name
City الجيزة
serial title كلية الزراعة - جامعة القاهرة
Web Page
Author(s) from ARC
Agris Categories Extension
Publication Type Journal