A study of some social and economic aspects of the labor of rural women heading and non heading households in the informal sector: the case of Alagamein village in Fayoum governorate.

Abstract: Work in the informal sector is a prominent feature of life in rural Egypt. It expands accordingly with the social, economic, and political situation nationally and internationally. A lot of researches demonstrate the importance of women participation in the informal economy; particularly those who head their households and are more likely to be engaged in this sector. Their work represents the main source of their families income as the key to household survival.
This paper aims at highlighting the divers activities of informal economy and their working atmosphere that rural women are engaged in. It also focuses on analyzing the differences between two groups of women engaged in informal economy those who are heading and non-heading their households in connection with the following aspects; First, working circumstance; which includes reasons for joining the work, the problems facing them, characteristics of the economic units and the work dynamics. Second, the number of years at work, the number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work. Third, the relationship between, the number of working years, the number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work as dependent variables with the respondents demographic characteristics; such as their age, educational status, size of the houshold, and the average educational level of houshold members and level of living and the capital invested in the informal economy of their housholds.
The present study was conducted in Alagamein Village at Fayoum Governorate. A random sample of 200 rural females working in the informal economy was selected with the help of key local informants, where 111 females are non heading their families, and 89 are heading their families. Data were collected by personal interviews using a structured questionnaire.
Frequencies, percentages, t-test. and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in analyzing the Regarding the most important motives of rural woman to join informal sector, the respondents mentioned: economic, occupational and social motives while the first one as the most important.
Regarding the woman working problems in the informal sector; respondents mentioned: economic, social, health, psychological and legal problems.
Regarding the economic units, the results showed that economic units in the informal sector are small and use maximum seven laborers with manual and semi-automatic tools. Working hours are irregular and activities vary but they arc limited in productive and selling activities.
Regarding the dynamics of rural woman working in informal sector, the results showed that vorking woman would be small entrepreneur or a waged laborer in an enterprise with a maximum capital of 1500 Egyptian pounds. Economic units depend on self or domestic finance or small project loan program.
The results showed significant differences between nonheading and heading rural woman in the number of years at work, the number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work.
The results proved that there are significant relationships between the number of years a. :k, the number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work and the dependent variables.
Publication year 2005
Pages 665-688
Availability location Agricultural Extension And Rural Development Research Institute Library – agricultural Research Center – 8, Cairo University St., - Egypt
Availability number 100
Country Egypt
City Cairo
Publisher Name: Cairo university
serial title Bulletin Faculty of Agricultural Cairo university
Web Page
Volume 56 . 4
Department Rural Sociology Research Department
Project
External authors (outside ARC)
    د. محمد حلمى نوار كلية الزراعة - جامعة القاهرة
    د. عزة تهامى البندارى كلية الزراعة - جامعة القاهرة
Book editors
AGROVOC
TERMS
Women.
Proposed Agrovoc