The relationship between women's labor in the informal sector and some social and economic variables: a comparative study between the woman heads and nor-heads of households in Alagameien village in Fayoum governorate

Abstract: Work in the informal sector is a prominent feature of life in rural Egypt. It expands accordingly with the social, economic, and political situation nationally and internationally. A lot of researches demonstrate the importance of women's participation in the informal sector; particularly those who head their households and are more likely to be engaged in this sector. Their work represents the main source of their families' income as the key to household survival.
This paper aims at highlighting the divers activities of informal sector and their working atmosphere that rural women are engaged in. Identify the impact of working in informal sector for both women on their relationship with their families and local communities. It also focuses on analyzing the differences between two groups of women engaged in informal sector those who are heading and non-heading their households in connection with the following aspects; number of years at work, number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work. Finally, Identify the relationship between some selected independent variables and women's work circumstances (number of working years, number of working hours, and their annual income).
The study was conducted in Alagamein village at Fayoum governorate. A random sample of 200 rural females working in the informal sector were selected with the help of key local informants, where 111 females are non heading their household, and 89 are heading their household. Data were collected by personal interviews using a structured questionnaire.
Frequencies, percentages, t-test, Pearson Simple correlation coefficient and Qui square were used in analyzing the data.
The results showed that in connection with the main activities it was found that:
-Regarding the most important motives of rural woman to join informal sector, the respondents mentioned: economic, occupational and social motives while the first one as the most important.
-Regarding the woman working problems in informal sector; respondents mentioned: economic, social, health, psychological and legal problems. >Regarding the economic units results showed that economic units in informal sector are small and use maximum seven laborers with manual and semi-automatic tools. Working hours are irregular and activities vary but they are limited in productive and selling activities.
- Regarding the dynamics of rural woman working in informal sector results showed that working woman would be small entrepreneur or a waged laborer in an enterprise with a maximum capital of 1500 Egyptian pounds. Economic units depend on self or domestic finance or small projects loans program.
- Regarding the impact of working in informal sector for both women on their relationship with their families and local communities results showed that(17.98%) of the respondents confirmed that their relationships with their husbands were affected, while small proportion
(121%) and (2.50%) confirmed that their relationship with their children and neighbors had been affected.
-The results showed significant differences between non-heading and heading rural woman in the number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work.
-The results proved that there are significant relationships between number of years at work, number of daily hours of work, and the annual income from their work and some dependent variables in this study.
-In addition there are (29) respondents practice in secondary activities which have been tested in their relations to the some social and economic variables tested with the main activities.





The key words: Rural Egypt, informal sector, Women heading households
Publication year 2005
Pages 1-264
Availability location Agricultural Extension And Rural Development Research Institute Library Agricultural Research Center – 8, Cairo University St., - Egypt
Availability number 603
Country Egypt
City
Project
External authors (outside ARC)
AGROVOC
TERMS
Role of women.
Proposed Agrovoc