Chemical studies on some genetic resources of wheat, faba bean and peanuts

Abstract: The main purpose of this study wasto identify and characterize the various germplasms of wheat, faba bean and peanut using chemical methods. Consequantly, the gross chemical composition, protein fractions, electrophoretic proteins and some isozymes were determine.The gross chemical composition comprised of the following, moisture, crude proteins, lipids, ash, crude fiber, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. The protein fractions (albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins) were separated dependent upon the proper solvent for each protein fraction (water, salt, alcohol and alkali). The sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was employed to characterize the seed proteins and some isozymes since these components do not affect by the environmental conditions.
The results could be summerized as follow:
1- The data for the gross chemical compositions of various germplasms belonging to wheat, faba bean and peanut can only be used to classify the germplasms of each crop into groups. On the other hand, the data for the gross chemical composition can not be used a basic criterion for germplasm characterization for each crop under study. This finding was achieved because there are overlapping values for a particular chemical composition for the crop germplasms. Some ratios were calculated in order to find a clue for germplasm characterization for each crop such as: carbohydrates/proteins, carbohydrates/ lipids, proteins/ lipids, carbohydrates + proteins/ lipids, carbohydrates + lipids/ proteins and protein + lipids/ proteins. The calculated ratios did not give any indication for germplasms differentiation for the crops under study.
2- Thr crude proteins of various germplasms for each crop were fractionated into 5 fractions, i.e., albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins depending upon the solubility in different solvents. Some protein fractions had the same values for certain faba bean germplasms. Therefore, the ratios of globulins / albumins and globulins / prolamins were calculated and the data of these ratios can easily be used to characterize the germplasms belonging to each crop.
3- The seed proteins of various germplasms belonging to faba bean, peanut and wheat were fractionated by SDS-PAGE method. The scanned data of electrophoretic patterns for each protein crop were divided into 3 or 5 distinct regions depending upon the protein molecular weight. It is very difficult to discuss the protein profile for each crop germplasm for varietal differentiation. Hence, the presence or absence of certain bands beside the concentration of each band present in each protein subunit can be used as a criterion of germplasm identification.
4- The bands of four isozymes systems (peroxidase, esterase, glutamate oxaloacetate transferase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were fractionated for the identification of wheat, peanut and faba bean germplasms based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Generally speaking, the number of bands, the Rf value of the bands, the absolute concentration of each band and the ratios between certain bands of the isozymes under study can be adequately employed to characterize the various wheat, peanut and faba bean germplasms.

Publication year 1999
Organization Name
Country Egypt
Department Seed Technology Research
Author(s) from ARC
Agris Categories Crop husbandry
Groundnuts. Sesamum.
Publication Type PhD Thesis