Journal      [Total: 107 ]

Some Physical and Engineering Properties of Sugar Beet Seeds in Relation with Some Agricultural Mechanical.

Ebtesam Mousa Ibrahim, Nahed Ismail, 2008


Some properties of sugar beet seed species were determined to utilize for design and develop the precision , handling process and cleaning systems . The main dimensions (length, width and thickness), spherisity, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, surface area, bulk density and true density were identified as physical parameters . Meanwhile, the terminal velocity, and hardness were measured as engineering properties. Results of the above investigated parameters showed that the mean of sugar beet seed properties data were 6.12mm, 5.30mm, 4.08mm, 7.22, 44.59mm, 5.17mm, 204.97mm, 0.277g/cm, 4.62g/cm, 1.66m/sec and 17.64N respectively for multi- germ species. But, the same data at mono - germ were 4.34mm, 4.14mm, 3.82mm, 5.28, 22.94mm, 4.10mm, 112.96mm, .439g/cm, 0.747g/cm, 3.049m/sec and 23.29N respectively. The mean values for the coefficient of friction were 0.4765, 0.5108, 0.5704 and .7276 on stainless steel, iron sheet galvanized, plastic and rubber matrials respectively for multi - germ seeds. Furthermore, the mean values for the oefficient offriction were 0.2609, 0.2894, 0.3027 and 0.3537 on stainless steel, ron sheet alvanized, plastic and rubber matrials rsspectively for mono - germ seeds. Keywords : Sugar beet, spherisity, geometric diameter, arithmeter, surface rea, bulk density and true density terminal velocity, coefficient of friction nd hardness.

Develop A Solid Fertilizer Spreader For Putting Fertilizers Under Vegetable Seedlings In New Lands

Ebtesam Mousa Ibrahim, Abdelmohsen Mohamed Elshahhat, 2008


The planting of vegetable under drip-irrigation needs prepared soil to be suit bed for vegetables seedlings. To carry out this work the manure spreader was developed to put mixture fertilizers in trenches and covered it. The studied parameters were; three forward speeds of 5.96, 7.95 and 10.04 km/h; three feeding gate height of 60, 80, and 100 mm and three conveyor rotating speeds of 14, 22 and 31 rpm. The obtained results showed that at forward speed of 5.96 km/h, 100 mm feeding gate height and conveyors speed of 31 rpm gave the best needs of vegetables seedling where in this case showed the minimum operating cost was 2.73 L.E/m3, volumetric of mixture fertilizers was 5.08 m3/fed, established thickness of fertilizer layer in trench was 3.63 mm and the lower power consumed was 14.74 kW. The research concluded that the developed machine can prepare the soil to suitable for vegetable seed or seedling plant. The developed fertilizing machine makes a trench, put the mixture fertilizers in the trench and cover the fertilizer by metal plate. Consequently, this machine can be widely used to prepare the soil in new reclaimed and desert lands especially for the vegetable crops commonly sensitive for fertilizer reduced. Keywords: Fertilizing machine efficiency, fertilizer rate, gate height, conveyor speed, forward speed.

Factors Affecting Crushing and Extracting of Olive Oil

Mohamed El-Kholy, taher el-kadie, 2008


A laboratory oil extraction line was designed and fabricated to determine the operational parameters affecting crushing and oil extracting of different olive varieties grown in Arish, Sahrawy (Cairo-Alexandria road) and Siwa areas. For crushing experiments, three different hammers shapes (flat, triangular and wing), three different screen holes diameters (4, 5 and 6 mm) and four different hammer speeds (1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm) were examined to determine the percentage of particles diameters of the olive paste at the range of 2.25-4 mm as an optimum size for oil extraction from olive paste. Hydraulic press extraction of oil for different crushed samples was also conducted at a pressure of 85 bar and remaining time of 60 minutes to determine the relationship between the percentage of particle diameters at the range of 2.25-4 mm and the percentage of remaining oil in the olive paste. The results show that for all studied varieties, the highest percentage of olive paste particles diameters at the range of 2.25-4 mm was obtained for the triangular hammer shape at hammer speed ranged from 2000 to 2500 for the varieties of Sahrawy area. At the same time, the proper screen holes diameter ranged from 4 to 5 mm. The oil extraction experiments showed that for all studied varieties, the lowest percentages of remaining oil in the olive pastes were obtained for the samples of particle diameters at the range of 2.25-4 mm.

Development and Evaluation of an Olive Oil Extracting Machine

taher el-kadie, Mohamed El-Kholy, safwat el-khawaga, 2008


A study was carried out to develop and evaluate an olive oil extracting machine. The developed machine included washing, crushing and hydraulic press units. The optimum operating condition, machine capacity, working efficiency and energy consumption for the machine units were measured and evaluated for different oil, dual purpose and mixed varieties of olive. The results show that, the average working capacity for the machine units was 197.1 kg/h. While, the energy consumption for the washing and crushing units was 2.53 kW.h., and it was 8.13 kW.h for the hydraulic press unit. On the other hands, the extraction efficiency of the hydraulic press unit was varied from 84.49 to 98.33% for the pure varieties and from 87.96 to 91.81 % for the mixed varieties. Which means that, mixing of different varieties does not affect the extraction efficiency of the hydraulic press unit. In general the developed machine was proved to work satisfactorily for the pure and the mixed varieties considering working capacity, efficiency and energy consumption.

Design and Manufacture of a Local Date Pitting Machine to Produce Date Paste Agwa))

usama Kaddour, taher el-kadie, Ibrahim abdel-tawwab, 2007


Date fruits are considered one of the greatest sources to provide a concentrated energy food. It’s also used in producing many industrials products. The flesh dates are utilized for many purpose of making sweets, preserves, condiments, breakfast foods, desserts, derived date products, confectionery, baking products, institutional feeding and health foods. To produce these products with date paste, the date pits should be manually or mechanically removed. For the sake of industrial requirements to produce date paste (AGWA) from semi dried date fruits especially the Egyptian common variety (siwi variety) in maturity mode (tamr), a roller date pitting machine has been designed, constructed and experimented to evaluate it’s performance under the designed operating conditions. The tested operating parameters were five levels of rotating speed (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 rpm), five levels of (P/D) pitch/diameter ratio (1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, and 2.2), and three levels of clearances between the two drums (0, 1, and 2 mm). It was evaluated based on the machine productivity, machine efficiency, energy requirement and operating cost. Some physical and mechanical properties for the investigated fruits and their pits (Siwi variety) were studied such as; (dimensions, mass, density, friction angle between date and stainless steel sheet, and force required for strip the date pit.). The obtained results indicated that the average values of the physical and mechanical properties of the fruit were 34.12mm, 20.96mm, 19.61mm, 10.98g, 9.40g, 1.59g, 0.6545g/cm3, 24.65cm, 10.94mm, 9.56mm. for fruit length, width, thickness, mass, flesh mass, seed mass, bulk density, pit length, width, and thickness. The pit take-off force was found to be 48.90 N, and the friction coefficient between dates and stainless steel surfaces was 0.67 . The most important results can be concluded as: The highest machine productivity (423 kg/h) with the optimum machine efficiency (86.6 %) by using the pitting machine with drum speed of 80 rpm, with 1.6 P/D ratio, and drums clearance of 1 mm. The energy consumed to pit one ton of date with manual pitting is about 10.69 kW.h/ton. While, the energy required for the designed pitting machine was recorded as 3.47 kW.h/ton. The operating costs for the designed date pitting machine was 29.50 LE/ton, whereas the manual date pitting cost is about 178.57 LE/ton.

Apparent dynamic friction coefficients for grain crops

Youssef Shrobeem, 2007


The proper design of grain handling equipment requires knowledge of its frictional characteristics. The force of friction must be overcome before these materials will flow or before motor can start a loaded conveyor. A friction device was developed and fabricated at AEnRI workshop, Dokki, Giza. The developed device was connected to Instron machine model MTS Sintech built with 250N load cell and was used to measure the friction force. The Static and Dynamic coefficient of friction of wheat, and fababean on three horizontal surfaces (wood, steel and rubber), were measured. Three moisture contents (MC), four different applied normal loads (20, 40, 60, and 80 N) and five different sliding speeds (100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mm/min) were performed. The coefficients of friction of wheat and fababean grains sliding against all the tested surfaces increased with an increase in moisture content but with different degrees. The coefficients of friction between wheat and fababean grains and tested surfaces increased with an increase in applied normal load. The increases in coefficient of friction specially in the case of soft surface was considered due to a compound opposing force (resistance force) consisting of two elements, the first one was the force to overcome friction, and the second one was the force to overcome the dissipated energy in the deformation occurred in both the grains and the soft sliding surface. This was the reason to give coefficient the name of apparent dynamic coefficient of friction.

Feasibility of Using Corn Sheller Machine in Threshing Sunflower

Ebtesam Mousa Ibrahim, Abdelmohsen Mohamed Elshahhat, 2007


This research aims to test the feasibility of using a corn sheller machine for threshing sunflower crop . The effect of some parameters such as drum speed (4.71, 7.85, 10.99 and 14.13, m/s ) ,concave clearans ratio (C1 /C2) (1.2, 1.5, 2.3, and 2.9, ) type of drum (cranke arrangement at 30 - spik teeth arrangement at 30 - and 90 ) on machine productivity (Mg /h ) energy requirements (kW.h /Mg ) were taken into consideration . The results revealed that , it is possible to use the corn sheller machine after macking some modification on threshing drum and concave in threshing sunflower crop .Optimum operation conditions were obtained with crank cylinder angle 30 at drum speed of (14.13 m/s) cylinder concave clearance ratio (1.2) were gave the best results of threshing efficiency (94.4%) . Lowest grain damage (1.7%) , total losses (0.9%), hight productivity (0.628 Mg /h ), energy requirement (2.5 kW.h/Mg), cost L.E/Mg (16L.E/Mg) .

Proper Design and Evaluation of Equipment for Extracting Watermelon Seeds



An equipment for seed extraction from watermelon seed was designed, locally manufactured, and evaluated. It performed many functional processes namely: watermelon fruit crushing, seed separation from other fruit material (flesh and skin), skin releasing, and seed cleaning. Numerous theoretical relationships necessary to correlate the design parameters of the equipment operating mechanisms, with the physical and mechanical properties of watermelon fruits and seeds were analyzed and utilized as the database for design concepts. The performance of the fabricated equipment has been tested and evaluated versus different design and operating parameters, and also economically compared to the manual extraction method of watermelon seeds. The results indicated that the proper performance of the fabricated equipment has been achieved at crushing drum speed of 4.7 m/s, clearance concave of 24 mm and cleaning brushes number of 8 that rotating at peripheral speed of 4.7 m/s. Whereas, at these operating conditions maximum equipment productivity values of 217.4 kg/h, cleaning efficiency of 84.7%, minimum visible seed damage values of 0.398%, and minimum seed losses values of 3.83% have been recorded. The average unit power required for accomplishing all processes of the fabricated equipment may be amounted as 10.75 kW. While, the average net profit due to replacing the fabricated equipment instead of the manual extraction method of watermelon seeds may be amounted as 2992 L.E/fed

Influence of Geometric Dimensions of Extrusion Die Holes on Machine Efficiency and Pellets Quality.

usama Kaddour, taher el-kadie, 2006


Both the geometrical dimensions of die and rations components are the most important parameters influencing on the efficiency of extrusion machine and the quality of pellets. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of geometrical dimensions of die such as; [(Length/Diameter(L/D) ratio, hole entry diameter (Dhe), die opening area (OAD), and thickness of die (ThD)] on both the efficiency of extrusion machine and the quality of produced pellets for two different kinds of ration (standard ration, and residual ration) to produce high quality of large animal feed pellets (φ 12 mm). The extrusion machine with different dies was evaluated for the two previously kinds of ration and taken into account the effective design parameters such as; [four levels of L/D ratio (1.42, 1.67, 1.92 and 2.17), hole entry diameter (16, 18 and 20 mm), percentage of die opening area (2.66, 5.33, and 7.99 %), and thickness of die (30 and 35 mm)], while the evaluation parameters were specified into two groups such as; a) machine evaluation parameters (productivity, energy requirements and total losses), b) pellets quality parameters (pellets durability, pellets bulk density, and pellets hardness). The results indicated that the optimum conditions for producing a good quality of pellets from standard ration were 1.92 L/D ratio, 18 mm hole entry diameter, 5.33 % die opening area, and 30 mm thickness of die, when the evaluated parameters (machine productivity, energy requirements, total losses, pellets durability, pellets bulk density, and pellets hardness) were 0.399 t/ h ., 114.04 kW .h./ton, 5.21%, , 86.72% , 1.190 g/ cm3 , and 184.80 N, respectively. On the other hand the optimum conditions for producing a good quality of pellets from residual ration were 1.67 L/D ratio, 20 mm hole entry diameter, 2.66 % die opening area, and 35 mm thickness of die, when the evaluated parameters (machine productivity, energy requirements, total losses, pellets durability, pellets bulk density, and pellets hardness) were 0.306 t/ h ., 153.10 kW .h./ton, 5.38%, , 90.35% , 1.11 g/ cm3 , and 192.47 N, respectively. The multiple regression analysis illustrated that the evaluated parameters could be thoroughly predicted as a function of the studied parameters as follows: Yi = a + b X1 + c X2 + d X3 + e X4 Where: Yi = machine productivity, energy requirements, total losses, pellets durability, pellets bulk density, and pellets hardness Xi = L/D ratio, hole entry diameter (Dhe), percentage of die opening area (OAD), and thickness of die (ThD). a, b, c, d, e = constants.

Development and Manufacture of Local Paddle Mixer for Rabbits Forage Preparation

taher el-kadie, usama Kaddour, Ibrahim abdel-tawwab, 2006


A paddle mixer was designed, fabricated and tested to improve the mixing homogeneity in premix feed processing. It operates at low speed and has large impellers, which sweep the whole vessel to mix high viscosity material in laminar flow. The fabricated mixer was evaluated and tested among the studying effects of some engineering and operating parameters on the mixing homogeneity and energy requirement. These parameters include the batch volume ratio (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0), mixing time (5, 10, 15, and 20 min.), impeller peripheral speed (0.86, 1.73, 2.6, and 3.47 m/s), blade setting angle (15, 30 and 45 degree) and batch moisture content (16.06 %, 20.12 %, and 24.03 %). The results indicated that increasing the time 15 min more had a negative effect on the process, causing component segregation, and an increase in energy requirement. Peripheral speed of the mixer should be 0.86-1.73 m/s. to prepare the best mixture conditions, it is recommended to keep the blade resting angle on mixing shaft in the range from 15º to 30º to achieve an adequate mixing homogeneity, vessel mixer must have a batch volume ratio (Vb/Vv) as close to 0.75 as possible. A moisture content of 16.06 % gave the best mixing homogeneity. The mixing time has not to exceed 15 minutes, blade setting angle in the range from 15º to 30º and mixing speed should be equal 1.73 m/s, to avoid extra cost in energy consumption. The developed model that can be used for predicting mixing homogeneity is expressed as follows: CV = 45.08 (ρvd/µ)0.1 (Vb/Vm) 0.02 (θ)-0.063 (gt2/h)-0.045 Based on the experimental results, the best mixing homogeneity (CV= 1.2 %) with the lowest energy requirement (2.11 kW.h/ton) could be obtained with impeller speed of 1.73 m/sec, mixing time 15 min., blade setting angle 30 degree, batch volume ratio 0.75 and batch moisture content of 16.06%.