Journal      [Total: 317 ]

Genetical Studies on Physiological and Morphological and their Relation with Wheat Yield

Hassan Ashoush, 2007

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A half dialed cross among five common wheat varieties and lines were evaluated in both F1 and F2 generation Were used to estimate general and specific combining abilities and correlation between grain yield / plant each of flag leaf area (FLA), leaf angle (LA), leaf area Index (LAI), specific leaf weight (SLW), relative growth rate(RGR), Chlorophyll ( A, B and carotenes), and some yield components in F1 and grain yield and yield components in F2 (LAI), (SLW) , and chlorophyll were measured at two periods ( 10 and 15 weeks after planting ). Significant mean squares for genotype of parents , crosses, and parents vs. crosses were detected in both generations except parents for (SLW) at the 1st period and parents for (SLW) at the 1st period and parents vs. crosses for *LA), (LAI) at the 1st period and (SLW) at the 2nd period in F1 generation . The parents P2 and P5 were the top of the tested parents in grain yield per plant. Correlation coefficient estimates between grain yield per plant and each of flag leaf area (FLA), leaf angle (LA) specific leaf weight (SLW) at the 1st and 2nd periods, (RGR), number of spikes / plant and 1000-kernelweight in F1, and number of spikes / plant, number of kernels / spike and 1000-kernel weight in F2 were positive and significant .
The mean squares associated with general specific combing ability were significant for all characters in both generations. High GCA/SCA ratio which exceeded than unity were detected for ( FLA), ( LA) and ( SLW) in F1 generation and most the studied characters in F2 generation. The parental line ( P1) had the best combiner for leaf angle ( LA) and low ( LAI), ( SLW) at the 2nd period, (RGR), chlorophyll at the 1st and 2nd periods and number of spikes per plant. Also, the variety ( P5) was the best combiner for ( FLA), ( LAI) at the 1st period, ( SLW) at the 1st period, chlorophylls at the 1st and 2nd periods, number of kernels per spik, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield per plant .
The five crosses (1×2), ( 1×5 ), ( 2×5), (3×4) and ( 4×5) gave significantly positive ( Sij) for grain yield / plant as well as most studied characters for F1 generation. The six crosses (1×2), ( 1×4 ), ( 1×4), ( 2×3), ( 2×5), and (3×4) gave significantly positive ( Sij) for grain yield / plant as well as most studied characters for F2 generation. Generally, the results obtained from F2 data were nearly similar to those obtained from F1 data .


RESPONSE OF TWO RICE CULTIVARS TO SCHEDULING IRRIGATION BASED ON CLASS A PAN EVAPORATION

Ismail El-Refaee, 2007

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With decreasing water availability for agriculture, and increasing demand for rice, water apply in rice production systems has to be well managed to increase its productivity. This investigation aimed to study the effect of scheduling irrigation based on Class A Pan Evaporation on grain yield and water use of two rice cultivars. Two field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Farm of Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt during 2003 and 2004 summer seasons. The two experiments were laid out in a split plot design, with four replications, where the main plots were occupied by irrigation every six days with applied water equal 1.0 , 1.5 and 2.0 times of accumulative pan evaporation (APE) as well as continuous flooding as a traditional irrigation (check treatment). However, the sub plots were assigned to rice cultivars i.e. Sakha 101 and Sakha 102.
The main results revealed no significant differences in grain yield among irrigation treatments having continuous flooding and irrigation every six days interval with applied water equal 1.5 and 2.0 times of APE . At the same time, they significantly produced higher grain yield and most of its components than irrigation every six days interval with applied water equal 1.0 of APE.
Rice cv. Sakha 101 produced higher dry matter, number of tillers/m2, number of panicls/m2, panicle length, total grains/panicle, sink capacity, panicle weight, and grain yield. However, cv. Sakha 102 surpassed Sakha 101 in plant height and 1000-grain weight. Over both seasons, irrigation water amounts applied were 10495, 13769, 17044, and 15878 m3/ha for irrigation every six days interval with applied water equal 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of APE as well as continuous flooding treatments, respectively. Water requirements for rice cvs. Sakha 101 and Sakha 102 were 14868 and 13725 m3/ha, respectively. Irrigation water applied equal 1.0 of APE had the highest value of water utilization efficiency (WUtE) compared to other irrigation schedules using Class A Pan and the continuous flooding as well. Mean WUtE ranged from 0.659 to 0.704 kg rice/m3 water for Sakha 101, while it was between 0.681 and 0.721 kg rice/m3 water for Sakha 102 in 2003 and 2004 seasons, respectively. The quantity of water used in producing one kg of rice was higher in irrigation every six days with water applied equal 2.0 times of APE, followed by contentious flooding, however, irrigation water every six days with applied equal 1.5 and 1.0 of APE came in between.
Therefore, watering every six days interval with applied water equal 1.5 times of APE using Sakha 101 and Sakha 102 could be applied under shortage of irrigation water.


EFFECT OF CUT-OFF IRRIGATION DATE ON GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY OF SOME EGYPTAIN RICE CULTIVARS

Ismail El-Refaee, 2007

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Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2005 and 2006 summer seasons to study the effect of cut-off irrigation dates on grain yield and quality of some Egyptian rice cultivars for determine the optimum timing of last irrigation to rice field. Such experiments were laid out in a split-plot design, with four replications. The main plots consisted of three rice cultivars, viz. Sakha 101, Sakha 102 and Sakha 104, however, the sub-plots were occupied by four cut-off dates of irrigation, viz. termination of irrigation at complete heading, 7, 14 and 21 days after complete heading. The main results revealed that rice cultivars varied in panicle dry matter (g) and panicle growth rate (g/day/panicle) from heading to harvest time under different cut-off dates of irrigation. Panicle growth rate increased at a very fast rate and reached maximum in earlier stages for Sakha 102 and Sakha 104 than for Sakha 101, thereafter the rate of increase was slow, followed by a slight decrease. Sakha 101 recorded significantly the highest grain yield of 8.99 and 9.79 t/ha in 2005 and 2006 seasons, respectively, accompanied with maximum values of panicles number/m2, panicle length, number of spikelets per panicle, sink capacity, panicle density and panicle grain weight. However, Sakha 102 recorded the highest and significant values of unfilled grain percentage, one thousand grain weight, moisture content in grains, milling recovery (hulling, milling, head rice and broken rice %) and protein content. No significant difference was found between Sakha 102 and Sakha 104 in hulling, milling and head rice percentage. The results, also, showed that delay in withholding of irrigation significantly increased the grain yield and its components (panicle length, no. of grains/panicle, panicle density, panicle grain weight and 1000-grain weight) but, reduced the unfilled grains percentage compared with earlier cut-off dates of irrigation at complete heading. Higher moisture percentage in grains (17.64 and 15.99 %) was recorded when delay last irrigation up to 21 days of heading and resulted in higher head rice recovery (67.36 and 66.91 %) and lower broken rice (5.40 and 6.02 %) in both seasons, respectively, whereas withholding irrigation just after heading reduced moisture content, and increased broken rice recovery. Over both seasons, panicle length, number of spikelets/panicle, sink capacity, panicle grain weight, moisture content and milling recovery (hulling, milling and head rice percentage) showed positive and highly correlation coefficients with grain yield. Also, positive correlation coefficient was found between grain yield with panicle density and protein content. However, unfilled grains and broken rice percentage had negative and highly significant correlation coefficients with grain yield. Generally, withholding of irrigation 21 days after compete heading is considered as the optimum timing of last irrigation to rice field to get high grain yield and quality of rice cultivars under the same conditions of study.


effect of balanced fertilizers on productivity of hybrid and inbred rice varieties

Reffat Gorgy, 2007

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Two field experiments were conducted at Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt in 2004 and 2005 summer seasons to study the effect of balanced fertilizers on productivity of hybrid and inbred rice varieties.
Six fertilizer treatments of N, P, K and Zn were applied as kg/ha. These combinations were as follows 0-0-0-0 (T1), 165-0-0-0 (T2), 165-36-57-0 (T3), 165-36-0-24 (T4), 165-0-57-24 (T5) and 165-36-57-24 (T6) for the four elements, respectively. Split plot design, with four replications, was used. The rice varieties were laid out in the main plots, while fertilizer treatments were in the sub plots. The rice varieties included two hybrids (SK2034 H and SK2047 H) and one inbred (Sakha 104). The results revealed that the hybrids were superior over the inbred in growth characters (dry matter/m2, leaf area index and chlorophyll content), grain yield and yield components. Also, N, P, K and Zn concentrations were higher in grains and straw of hybrids than in those of the inbred. By contrast, Sakha 104 was superior over the hybrids in plant height and 1000-grain weight.
Under the experimental sites, (T6) treatment gave the highest values of dry matter (DM), leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, plant height, grain and straw yield and yield components (no. of panicles/m2-panicle weight, no. of spikelets/panicle, no. of filled grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight) as well as the highest N, P, K and Zn concentration in grains and straw and ranked first followed by (T3, T4, T5) treatments with insignificant differences existed among them which ranked second. Applying nitrogen only, (T2) treatment was intermediate in these respects.
The interaction between rice cultivars and fertilizer treatments in both seasons were significant for DM, LAI, no. of spikelets/panicle, no. of filled grain/panicle, no. of tillers/m2, no. of panicles/m2 and grain yield (t/ha)
In fact, these results may reveal that the absence of P, K and Zn show significant effect on growth, yield and its components when hybrid and inbred rice varieties were preceded by wheat, therefore, the balanced fertilizers is necessary to increase plant vigor and hence its productivity, as compared with the untreated (control) or missing application of these elements with nitrogen.


performance of hybrid and inbred rice cultivars under different planting geometry and number of seedlings per hill

Reffat Gorgy, 2007

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Two field experiments were conducted at the Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt in 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. The present attempt aimed to study the effect of three different spacings (20 x 15, 20 x 20 and 20 x 30 cm) and three number of seedlings/hill (2, 4 and 6 seedling/hill) on growth, grain yield and its components of two rice cultivars (hybrid rice SK2047H and Giza 178, inbred rice). The most important findings of this research could be summarized as follows:
Significant differences were detected between the two rice cultivars in growth, grain yield and its components in the two seasons. The hybrid rice cultivar, SK2047H significantly exceeded the inbred rice cultivar, Giza 178 in growth characters, grain yield and most of its components. Hybrid SK2047H recorded the highest plant height, dry matter production, crop growth rate, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, biomass production, number of panicles/hill, panicles weight, 1000-grain weight, number of filled grains/panicle, grain yield as well as harvest index.
Seedling planted at a sparse spacing (20 x 20 and 20 x 30 cm) produced higher leaf area index (LAI), highest value of light penetration, panicle weight, number of filled grains/panicle, grain filling period than seedling planted at a dense spacing (20 x 15 cm). Closer spacing (20 x 15 cm) gave higher dry weight, crop growth rate (CGR), plant height, sterility percentage than wider spacing. In the same time seedlings plant at 20 x 20 cm was benefit for rice growth and grain yield where, produced the highest number of panicles/hill, biomass yield, grain yield (t/ha) and harvest index.
Crops planted at two seedlings per hill gave significantly higher panicle weight, 1000-grain weight, grains filling period and harvest index (HI). While, six seedlings/hill resulted in lower in panicle weight, 1000-grain weight, number of filled grains/panicle, number of panicle/hill, biomass yield, harvest index and grain yield. In the same time, gave higher dry weight, leaf area index and sterility % compared with two seedlings/hill. Two or four seedlings/hill recorded the highest value of light penetration, number of filled grains/panicle, number of panicles/hill, 1000-grain weight, biomass and grain yield, but, crop growth rate (CGR) and chlorophyll content were not affected.
The interaction between rice cultivars and plant spacings was significant for DM, CGR and light penetration. Also, statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effect between cultivars and no. of seedlings per hill for 1000-grain weight, sterility %, number of panicles/hill and grain yield. In addition, this effect between spacing and number of seedlings/hill was significant for light penetration.
For getting high yield, the hybrid rice (SK2047H) should be transplanted as two seedlings per hill in a 20 x 20 cm spacing. As for the inbred rice (Giza 178), it should be transplanted as four seedlings per hill at the same aforementioned spacing.


mean performance, correlation and path coefficient under irrigation with saline water in some genotypes of peanut (arachis hypogaea l.)

fawzy ismail, 2007

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Two field experiments were carried out at El- Arish Agricultural Research Station, North Sinai Governorate, in 2003 and 2004 seasons, to study the effect of irrigation with saline water on yield, yield components and seed oil of some peanut genotypes through mean performance, correlation coeffient and path analysis.
Results indicated that significant differences among twelve peanut genotypes under study for number of pods/plant, pods weight/plant, seeds weight/plant, 100-pod weight, 100-seed weight, shelling percentage, seed yield/fed as well as seed oil percentage in the two seasons and their combined analysis were observed.
Int 341 genotype surpassed the other peanut genotypes in most of the measured yield and yield components as well as some quality characters. Giza 3 recorded the highest value of 100-pod weight. Int .276 recorded the highest value of shelling percentage. While, Giza 5 gave the highest value of seed oil percentage. On the other hand local 404 recorded the highest value of measured characteristics, while. Int 342 genotype recorded the lowest oil seed percentage in the two seasons and their combined analysis. It was shown that Int 341 gave the highest values in most characters studied under irrigation with saline water and was the most salt tolerance one than the other studied genotypes.
Oil yield/fed appeared positive and significant correlation with number of pods/plant, weight of pods/plant, weight of seeds/plant, 100-pod weight, 100-seed weight, shelling %, pod yield/fed and seed yield/fed,
Other studied characters associated significantly and positively with each others. Oil percentage correlated negatively and insignificantly with the other studied characters.
Path analysis revealed that, the main sources of seed yield variation according to their relative importance were pod yield/fed (192.562) and seed yield/fed (103.877).
These results are of great interest for peanut breeder to select the most tolerant genotype to salinity and could involved in breeding program for salinity or could be recommended to be cultivated in marginal saline soil in Egypt.
Key words: Saline water, peanut, mean performance, irrigation, genotypes


response of peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) to co-inoculation with bradyrhizobium spp. and phosphate dissolving bacteria under different levels of phosphorus fertilization in sandy soils.

fawzy ismail, 2007

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Two field trials were conducted at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station during the two successive summer growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of phosphorus levels (0,8,16 and 32 P2O5/fed) and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp and phosphate dissolving bacteria (Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum ) either alone or in combinations on nodulation status (number and dry weight of nodules/plant), growth, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, yield and its attributes of groundnuts in a sandy soil. Results showed that inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and phosphate dissolving bacteria either solely or in combinations improved nodulation status, growth, N and P uptake, yield and its components. However, dual inoculation with (Bradyrhizobium + phosphate dissolving bacteria) were found to surpass the single inoculation for the aformentioned characters, in both growing seasons.
Increasing phosphorus levels up to 16 and 32 kg P2O5/fed significantly increased each of number and dry weight of nodules, dry matter, N and P uptake, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant, seed weight/plant, 100-pod weight, 100-seed weight, shelling %, pod yield/fed and crude protein compared with the plants received 8 kg P2O5 /fed and unfertilized treatments.
Moreover, results showed that most of the aforementioned characters increased significantly when the two phosphorus levels (16 and 32 kg P2O5/fed) were added in combinations with mixed inoculation with (Bradyhizobium + phosphate dissolving bacteria) compared to other treatments.
It can be concluded that improvement of peanut yield could be achieved by application of 16 kg P2O5/fed as rockphosphate in addition to inoculation with (Bradyrhizobium + phosphate dissolving bacteria) under sandy soils conditions.
Key words: Nitrogen fixation, Bradyrhizobium spp , peanut, phosphate dissolving bacteria, Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum, phosphorus fertilization.


effect of some soil amendments on yield and disease incidence in peanut (arachis hypogaea l)

fawzy ismail, 2007

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Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out in sandy soil at Ismailia Agricultural Experiment Research Station to determine the effect of five soil amendments on peanut yield and its diseases incidence. Yield components and quality in addition to pre-and post-emergence damping-off, pod rot and nematode incidence were determined in two peanut cultivars (Gregory and Giza 6) using split-plot design with four replicates.
The results indicated that the Gregory cultivar surpassed, significantly, Giza 6 regarding plant growth parameters, yield and yield components. It was also less susceptible to pre- and post-emergence damping-off pathogens and nematode infection in 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. Adding gypsum increased plant height, number of branches/plant, 100-seed weight, shelling percentage, pod weight and oil yield followed by farmyard manure and wheat straw for most of these characters.
Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Aspergillus spp., Pythium spp. and Meloidogyne spp. were isolated from peanut cultivated in Ismailia Agric Res. Station. Amending soil with gypsum gave the highest reduction of F. solani, M. phaseolina, R. solani and S. rolfsii incidence on the damped-off seedlings and rotted pods in greenhouse. Also, gypsum was the most effective treatment in the field experiments reducing the pre-, post-emergence damping-off, pod rots and nematode infections in both cultivars in the two tested growing seasons. There was a significant interaction between peanut cultivars and treatments in seven out of eleven studied characters in their combined data.
The foreign cultivar, Gregory, was the best in all characters than the local one, Giza
6, So it is recommended to be cultivated in that area and could be evaluated in other peanut producing areas of Egypt. Also, the promising soil amendments should be considered in the integrated pest management and peanut production enhancement programs.
Key words: soil amendments, peanut, damping-off, pod rots and nematode infection.


STUDIES GENETIC BEHAVIOR FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN SOME BREAD WHEAT CROSSES

sabry Seleem, 2007

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Six- populations i.e., P1 , P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were used in order to assess the nature of gene effects for six traits in three bread wheat crosses. Generation were grown in a field experiment at Sers- El-laian Agricultural Research station, A.R.C. during three successive seasons.
Significant useful heterosis in a positive direction was detected for number of kernels / spike and 100-kernel weight in the three crosses, spike weight in the first and second crosses. Highly significant negative inbreeding depression was obtained for number of spikes/ plant in three crosses, spike length and number of kernels / spike in the third cross one and grain yield/ plant in the first and second crosses .
Over - dominance toward the higher parent were detected for; number of spikes / plant, spike length and number of kernels / spike in the first and second crosses, 100- kernel weight in the three crosses and grain yield / plant in the second cross .
Significant E1 and E2 were detected for most studied traits. Additive gene effect were significant exhibited in all studied traits. Except for; number of spikes /plant , spike length and grain yield / plant in the first cross one and 100 - kernel weight in the first and second crosses .
Both dominance and epistasis were found to be significant for most of the attributes under investigations .
Heritability estimates in broad sense were high to moderate in magnitude with values between 93.98 for grain yield / plant to 44.99 for 100 - kernel weight. High to moderate values of heritability estimates were found to be associated with high to moderate genetic advance as percentage of F2 main in most cases.





ANALYSIS OF PHENOTYPIC STABILITY FOR GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT

sabry Seleem, 2007

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This investigation aimed to study the phenotypic stability and performance across 6 environments of twenty genotypes of grain yield and its components. Combined analysis of variance across environments indicated that, the mean squares due to (E), (G) and G x E were highly significant for all traits studied. Yield performance of each genotype showed different ranking across the studied environments at two seasons (2005 (Y1) and 2006 (Y2) and the three locations i.e., Gemmeiza (L1), Sers El-Lian (L2) and Ettai El-Baroud (L3). Phenotypic stabilities were computed for number of days to 50 % heading, and maturity, Plant height, number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield (ard./fad.) .
The results revealed highly significant differences among wheat genotypes (G), environments (E) and their interactions. Wheat genotypes differed in their response to the changes in environments. The most stable desired wheat genotypes were 3,4,6,9,15 and 20 for grain yield. On the other hand, the results confirmed the importance of number of spikes/m2 in increasing grain yield in wheat that it is a major component for grain yield. Also, these genotypes showed high stable under this study and could be used in breeding programs for improving the productivity of wheat in different environments .


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