Journal      [Total: 39 ]

Impact of Three Organic Materials Either Alone or Integrated with Oxamyl on Meloidogyne Incognita Infecting Tomato Under Greenhouse Conditions

Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, 2015


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determined the impact of three organic materials i.e. sesame grounded seeds and pigeon manure as pre-planting applications as well as salicylic acid as foliar spraying either alone or mixed with oxamyl at their half doses each on M. incognita infecting tomato plant cv. Alisa comparing with oxamyl at the recommended dose under greenhouse conditions (27±3o C). Pigeon manure alone or mixed with oxamyl at half doses overwhelmed other treatments in the increment values for total plant growth parameters and accomplished the highest percentage reduction of final nematode population, (95.4%), number of galls (93.7%), and egg-masses (94.4%), respectively. It is interesting to note that no significant deference between the three double treatments tested in plant length values that were amounted to 57.29, 57.29 and 54.16% for pigeon, salicylic acid and sesame plus oxamyl each at their half doses comparing to nematode alone. Nematode reproduction factors under the stress of sesame grounded seeds, pigeon manure and salicylic acid solely or mixed with oxamyl at their half doses each in comparing with oxamyl were adversely affected. Such rates ranged between 0.07- 0.14 vs 2.41 for nematode alone. It was evident that N, P, K and OM concentrations were obviously reduced by nematode infection. All tested components specially pigeon manure plus oxamyl as pre-planting application showed remarkable increase in N, P, K, and OM concentrations exceeding those of nematode alone.

Keywords: Pigeon manure, oxamyl, sesame, salicylic acid, organic materials, Meloidogyne incognita, integrated control, tomato plant.

Efficacy of some bioagents and plant extracts in controlling Tylenchulus semipenetrans on citrus in Egypt

Samaa Shawky, 2015


This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of four citrus rootstock; Sour orange (SO), Volkameriana (VOL), Cleopatra mandarin (CM) and Troyer citrange (TC) to citrus nematode; Tylenchulus semipenetrans and control citrus nematodes by using bioagents and plant extracts under both greenhouse and field conditions. In addition to determine the citrus yield (cv. Volkameriana) in Egypt. Data showed that Volkameriana is the most susceptible rootstock; whereas Troyer citrange is the least susceptible rootstock to the citrus nematodes under greenhouse conditions.Sven treatments (Psudomonas fluorescens, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Trichoderma harzianum, Origanum majorana, Tagetes erecta, Eucalyptus globules, at different concentrations, and oxamyl (24%)) were used to control T. semipenetrans under both greenhouse and field conditions on citrus. The most effective treatment in controlling citrus nematodes; T. semipenetrans was Psudomonas fluorescens whereas the least effective was suspension of Eucalyptus globules under both greenhouse and field conditions. Psudomonas fluorescens was more effective in reducing numbers of egg laying females, number of eggs/ egg-mass and number of second stage larvae in the soil, whereas the suspension of Eucalyptus globules was the least effective under both greenhouse and field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions all treatments led to increase the total fresh weight of shoots and roots of citrus seedlings especially at the highest concentration. The application of treatments achieved high decrease in nematodes population in both roots and soil under both greenhouse and field conditions also, increased the yield of citrus under field conditions.


Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, 2015


Four fungal species (Arthrobotrys sp., Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Trichoderma harzianum, T.viride) and six bacterial isolates (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Serratia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens) were selected to determine their ability to suppress the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on susceptible grapevine plants [Vitis venifera L. (cv. Flame Seedless)] under greenhouse conditions. The susceptible grapevine plants were treated by all previous microorganisms individually by rate 13108 CFU/20ml. The bio-agents inoculums were added to plants by two different ways. The first depends on adding the bio-agents only once (one week before nematode inoculation; 3000J2/plant) and the second adding the bio-agents twice (one week before and one week after nematode inoculation). Nematicide treatment, VYDATE_ as liquid 0.5% was used for comparison. All tested treatments (one week before nematode inoculation) significantly decreased number of J2 in the soil by rate 83%, number of root galls and number of egg-masses per plant 83.7, 85% respectively. The highest reduction was evident with Bacillus subtilis, in reducing root galling and number of eggmasses per plant. B. thuringiensis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and the fungus Arthrobotrys sp., gave the same effect in reducing root galling and number of egg-masses per plant. The least effective bio-agents in reducing nematode population were recorded in Trichoderma harzianum and B. megaterium. On the other hand when the fungi and bacteria added twice (one week before and one week after nematode inoculation), that increased the effect of bio-agents in reducing root galling and number of egg-masses per plant. B. megaterium was followed by the fungus Arthrobotrys sp., since they gave better results more than nematicide treatment (VYDATE_ 0.5%). The number of second stage juveniles in the soil was differ according to the different treatments. Fresh weights of root, shoot and their length were taken as a criteria for grapevine growth response. Plant treated by B. thuringiensis, one week before nematode inoculation gave the highest increase in the whole plant weight followed by B. subtilis. On the other hand when the bio agent were added twice, the highest increase in the whole plant was obtained in plant treated by Arthrobotrys sp., and by Hirsutella rhossiliensis, followed by B. thuringiensis.

Effect of Five Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne Incognita Infecting Tomato Plants under Greenhouse Conditions

Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, 2015


A pot experiment was conducted in order to study the impact of time application of four animal manures i.e. chicken, horse, farm-yard and pigeon manures and town refuse added separately either pre or post planting
treatments comparing to oxamyl on tomato plant cv. Castle Rock infected with M. incognita under greenhouse conditions (25±3oC). Results revealed that all tested materials clearly enhanced plant growth characters to great degree and reduce gall and eggmass numbers. Plant receiving pigeon manure as pre-planting or post planting applications at the level of 5g/plant obviously surpassed other tested animal manures and town refuse in the increment values of plant length (85.7 and 71.4%), total plant fresh weight (66.4 and 37.9%) number of flowers (100 and 100%), fruits (300 and 400%), and branches/plant(100 and 300%) and shoot dry weight (42.9 and 38.1%), as well as achieved the highest reduction percentage for number of root galls(89.1 and 81.5 %), eggmasses (90 and 84.2%), for pre or post planting applications, respectively followed by farm-yard manure where as chicken treatment as a pre-planting soil amendments exhibited the lesser values in this respect. All treatments obviously gave sizeable percentage increase values of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P), potassium(K), organic matter(O.M), and organic carbon(O.C) in leaves of tomato plant. The pigeon or chicken manures showed also very narrow C/N ratio (12.6:1) or (14.3:1), respectively, in this work. Among the tested materials, pigeon manure ranked first in percentage increase values of chemical components of leaves as pre-planting application, whereas chicken manure showed this position as post-planting treatment.

Keywords: Chicken, Horse, Farm-Yard , Pigeon , Manures , Town Refuse, Meloidogyne Incognita, Control, Tomato

Impact of Four Organic Acids on Meloidogyne Incognita Infecting Tomato Plants under Greenhouse Conditions

Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, 2015


A pot trail was conducted in order to study the influence of four organic acids i.e. salicylic , citric , oxalyic and humic acids at two concs.0.1& 0.05% in comparison with oxamyl against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato cv.9065FI under greenhouse(24±2C◦).Results indicated that all tested treatments clearly improved tomato plant
characters and reduced nematode development. Among the organic acid tested, salicylic acid at the two concs. surpassed other application in values of percentage increase of plant length (23.37&40.54%), number of leaves (28.03&55.3%), number of branches (16.7&54.2), total plant fresh weight (32.3&57.23%) and shoot dry weight (25.2&33.84%), and achieved the highest percentage reduction values of final nematode population(78.08%), number of egg- masses (89.47%), respectively. In the mean time, oxalic acid applications gave the least values in this respect comparing to the
check. Salicylic acid and humic acid at 0.05% since their eggmasses indices were in par (2) vs (4) for nematode alone. Among tested concentrations , 0.1 g/L of such organic acids was higher in values of N, P , K , C , O.M and total chlorophyll as compared to nematode alone , whereas the concentration of 0.05g/L of the four organic acids ranked first
in percentage increase values of total phenol which were amounted to 8.39 , 6.36 , 4.43 and 2.68% for salicylic , citric , oxalic and humic acids comparing to nematode alone , respectively.

Keywords: Salicylic , citric , oxalyic, humic, acid, Meloidogyne incognita, nematode , oxamyl.

Comparetive efficacy of some algal species, azolla, pleurotus and olive mill in controlling root knot-nematode on banana

Samaa Shawky, 2014


The study aimed to use two culture algal Spirulina platensis, Anabaena azollae , Azolla pinnata and Pleurotus columbinus besides olive mill waste in controlling root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in banana was monitored under both laboratory and commercial greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment revealed that high juvenile mortality percentage occurred during all the exposure periods of all treatments, the best results were after 72 hr exposure. Spirulina platensis followed by Anabaena azollae , Azolla pinnata, Pleurotus columbinus and olive watery extract significantly increased juveniles mortality up to 70%after 72h at the highest concentration of 1:10 (85.2, 81.4, 79.9, 73.5, 71.7 and 70.1%, respectively). In the productivity greenhouse experiment, the combination of culture filtrates of Spirulina platensis, Anabaena azollae , Azolla pinnata, Pleurotus columbinus and olive mill waste water achieved the highest reduction in the number of total nematodes in both soil and roots, also in numbers of galls. In addition, all combinations significantly increased the crop yield of banana plants comparing with the individual treatment and the control. The combined treatments significantly enhanced the CO2 evolution, dehydrogenase and nitrogenase activities over the control. It could be recommended that application of biological control agents against root knot nematode in banana is preferable to reduce the chemical nematicides inputs.

Distribution of nematode genera and seasonal fluctuation of Meloidogyne incognita with reference to its control on date- palm trees in Egypt.

Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, Samaa Shawky, 2014


Under field conditions, distribution (vertical and horizontal) of leven nematode genera on three date-palm cvs. Barhi , Samani and Zaghlool. Seasonal fluctuation of Meloidogyne incognita, and its biological control on date-palm cv. Zaghlool were investigated during one year of 2012. Results indicated that all eleven nematode genera recovered were found in high densities at a depth of 30-50 cm for both types of distributions, whereas only three genera viz. Criconemoides,Tylenchus and Trichodorus were detected in low densities at depth over 50 up to 100 cm in the case of vertical. However, at depth of 50-100 cm only three genera e.g. Aphelenchus, Criconemoides and Tylenchus were recovered in low number in the case of horizontal. Meanwhile, seasonal fluctuation of M. incognita population (J2) showed generally high peaks on date - palm cvs. Zaghlool, Samani and Barhi soil in August 2012, where Zaghlool cultivar ranked first in this respect. M. incognita (J2) population increased gradually during July, August and September on tested cultivars, then decreased in November and December 2012. Regarding M. incognita integrated biological control on date-palm cv. Zaghlool, dual treatments gave better results than single one for both percent reduction of reproduction factor and percentage increase of crop yield (78.1 %), especially, Paecilomyces lilacinus + Datura stramonium treatment.
Results also indicated amount increase in concentration of total sugar, total phenol, reducing sugar and free phenols in date-palm cv. Zaghlool of dual treatment than the single one, where P. lilacinus plus D. stramonium ranked first , however, the opposite trend was recorded in the case of total amino acids.

Integrated suppressive effect of micronutrients and compost against chickpea Fusarium wilt in relation to microbial activity

Saieda Ahmed, Mohamed Mazen, Amal Khalil, 2014


Two micronutrients, manganese and zinc sulphate used as seed treatment and compost used as soil amendement to study their effiency against Fusarium wilt disease of chickpea plants caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri. In vitro among 21 isolates of bacteria isolated from compost extract, five isolates belonging to genus Bacillus recorded linear growth of F. oxysporum on PDA medium. Supplying the medium with zinc or manganese sulphate increased antagonistic activity of the tested bacteria. Application of micronutrient and compost alone or in combination effectively reduced wilt diseases incidence under greenhouse and field conditions (seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012), Combined applications recorded maximum reduction. The reduction in disease incidence was associated with a rapied accumulation of salicylic acid content in chickpea roots compared to untreated- unamended control. Combined application was superior. Higher salicylic acid content caused lower disease incidence. Also, microbial activity in the rhizosphere of chickpea plants markedly increased as a result of application of micronutrients alone or combined with compost. Combined application recorded the highest increase and microbial activity. Beside the reduction in disease incidence, application of micronutrients and compost increased crop parameters of chickpea plants as well as seed protein content compared to untreated-unamended control.

Keywords:-Chickpea, Fusarium wilt disease, Micronutrients,Compost, Microbial activity, Seed yield, Protein.

Induction of Systemic Resistance in Sugar-Beet Infected with Meloidogyne incognita by Humic Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide, Thiamine and two amino acids

Ashraf Mohamed Khalil, 2013


Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in clayey soil in order to
determine the nematicidal properties of humic acid, hydrogen peroxide, thiamine and two amino acids i.e. phenylalanine and L-Glutamic acid at the concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm against Meloidogyne incognita and the potential for induction of systemic resistance in sugar-beet. Results revealed that all treatments with tested concentrations were found to have nematicidal activity against nematode infection and improved plant growth parameters of sugar-beet with various degrees. Humic acid as well as thiamine at the concentration of 2000 ppm
proved to be the best for enhancing total plant fresh weight with percentage of increase over control amounted to 148.4 and 142.8% respectively. Root galling and number of eggmasses were significantly suppressed with such materials tested. Leaves of sugar-beet were assayed for their biochemical profiles with respect to NPK, total cholorophyll, proteins, and phenols. However, activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxide oxidase (PO) were evaluated in roots of sugar-beet infected with M.incognita. The enzymes accumulation was much greater in thiamine than humic acid treated plants compared to control. The present study revealed the
potential of such materials to control root-knot nematode, M.incognita and induce systemic resistance in sugar-beet plant.

Keywords: Meloidogyne incognita, sugar-beet, humic acid, amino acid, hydrogen
peroxide, thiamine.

New Findings on Biological Control Trials of Potato Brown Rot with Antagonistic Strains of Bacillus circulans, in Egypt

Naglaa Balabel, Nabil Farag, 2013


Two biologically active strains of Bacillus circulans (SF1 and DE62), described in Egypt as silicate dissolving bacteria, were experimented for the control of potato brown rot caused by Ralstonia solanacearum . In in vitro studies, the isolate SF1 as well as DE 62 were antagonistic to certain isolates of the pathogen. Both spore forming isolates produce nitrogenase, hydrolytic enzymes and mobilize potassium. Our results show in general, a tendency of R.solanacearum population to increase in the rhizosphere of potato raised in Bacillus circulans treated soil. Similar trend was observed for the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), wilt severity and pathogen colonization in plant crown(s). At cultivars level, cv. Cara (late mature) showed highly significant increase in AUDPC and wilt severity over Inova (early mature) and Picasso (medium mature) either in presence or absence of Bacillus circulans. The greater increase of the pathogen, in B. circulans treatments, was attributed to the nitrogen fixation potential and further enrichment of the micro ecosystem, i.e. the rhizosphere, with nutrients due to hydrolytic enzymes produced by the above mentioned strains. Raising potatoes in clay soil with increasing percentage of sand up to 20% revealed a tendency for disease severity decrease. The effect was attributed to an easier flushing of the pathogen under alkaline soil conditions. The significant increase in plant height and tuber weight in the B. circulans treatments was attributed to greater availability of nutrients especially nitrogen and potassium. It could be concluded that the results of antagonism in vitro may be inconclusive under certain circumstances following soil application, in biological control trails. Other inherent physiological and biological activities of the antagonist may be considered as limiting factors in biological control success.