Journal      [Total: 68 ]

The Effect of Reducing the Rice Area on Farmers’ Income in the A.R.E.

Salah Abd El-Mohsen, Wael Azat El-Abed, Amin Al deakla, Mohamed Husein Khelifa, Radwan Abas Amar, Howida Hassan Mohamed, Rasha Ahmed Farag, Amal Eid Elseheme, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), April 2020. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Competitiveness of the Egyptian Onion in the Most important Foreign Markets

Hanaa Abd El latef, Isabil Zakhary, Wael Azat El-Abed, Amal Eid Elseheme, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC),ِ April 2020. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Comparative Economic Study of Consumptive Expenditure on Fruits in Egypt

Hammad Ahmed El-Said, Gmal Atia, 2019

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Egyptian Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MLAR), Vol.(97), No.(1), Cairo, Egypt, 2019. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fruit's groups are considered one of the main food groups due to the numerous benefits for human health. The current research seeks to find answers regarding the impacts of changes in the prices and per capita income on Egyptian consumers. Accordingly, the research aims to study the main factors affecting expenditure on fruit's groups and measuring elasticities of expenditure on fruit's groups to assess its importance to consumers. Results showed that annual per capita expenditure on fruit's groups accounted for 6.8% and 6.4% of the average annual expenditure on food and drinks at the country level in 2010/2011 and 2014/2015, respectively. Results also showed variances in average per capita expenditure on fruit's group between expenditure categories. It was also found that per capita average expenditure on fruit's groups' group declines as family size increases, where variances exist between different family sizes in terms of per capita average expenditure on fruit's groups. In addition, results showed clear variances between expenditure on fruit's groups by household heads with different levels of education in rural Egypt compared to urban Egypt during 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. It was found that differences in per capita average share of expenditure on fruit's groups group decline as household head's economic activity differs, and as area of residence of household head differs (rural and urban). Results indicated variances between expenditure on fruits' group in urban and rural Egypt as household head's level of education differs, and that per capita expenditure on fruit's group greatly changed between 2010/2011 and 2014/2015 according to household head's occupation. Finally, estimating elasticities of expenditure on fruits indicated that they are semi-necessary goods at the level of urban and rural Egypt in 2014/2015, while proved necessary goods in rural Egypt during 2010/2011. In the light of the achieved results, the research recommended dedicating more support to education, encouraging foreign investment to create job opportunities for the unemployed and to raise the standard of living for society individuals, and promoting media programs that aim to raise awareness about the health benefits of eating proper quantities of fruits per day, especially in rural Egypt. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Analysis of Consumer Demand for some Fresh Fruits in Egypt

Ahmed Wishahy, Hammad Ahmed El-Said, Eman Abd Ellah Mohamed, Gmal Atia, Rasha Ahmed Farag, 2018

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC),June 2018. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Economic Value and Cost Recovery of Water in the Egyptian Irrigated Agriculture

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2018

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Egyptian Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MLAR), Vol.(96), No.(2), Cairo, Egypt, 2018. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ This article provides estimates for on-farm irrigation costs paid by farmers and the imputed economic value of water for the main crops in the study sample and identifies the appropriate method for the Egyptian conditions, and measures the impact of irrigation water consumption, water savings and gross margin in Egypt. Data were collected from a formal survey for 80 farmers conducted in 2016/2017 to collect data on the farm budgets of the crops prevailing in Al Satamony Village located at Dakahlia Governorate (Belkas District). Residual method was employed to impute the economic value of water and an assessment of crop-based irrigation water cost recovery policy was made in terms of its impact on irrigation water consumption and gross margin. Besides, the study conducted an online opinion poll about the possibility to recover a part of the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of irrigation in Egypt and the irrigation cost recovery method relevant to the Egyptian case. The results from this study confirm the need for additional investments to improve the efficiency of the existing irrigation system whereas, such investments are regarded as public good putting more pressure on the national budget. However, Egyptian farmers do not pay for water used in their farms. They bear only the on-farm irrigation costs. Thus, the Government of Egypt (GoE) considered more direct methods of recovering costs from farmers in order to reduce the government’s recurrent fiscal burden while improving the efficiency and sustainability of O&M services. Rice and clover ranked first in terms of high shadow price of irrigation water, followed by sugar beet, wheat and maize whereas, sugar beet and clover gained the highest water productivity. The analysis showed that crop-based scheme is the irrigation cost recovery policy most relevant to the Egyptian case. Such policy achieves water saving of at least half a million cubic metres for the old lands of Dakahlia Governorate. However, farm gross margin decreases as the total on-farm irrigation costs based on the crop-based irrigation water tariff increase. This implied the importance of such policy that directly affect famers’ behaviour towards reducing irrigation water consumption and slightly decreases farm gross margin, as well. To conclude, there is a need for sufficient farmer’s access to knowledge and improving communication channels between farmers and skilled agricultural extension personnel about the harmful effect of over-irrigation, the recommended crop water requirements, the role of water user associations (WUAs), and water-saving management techniques before introducing the proposed irrigation cost recovery policy. Besides, a public awareness campaign on the need to recover a part of the O&M irrigation costs is one of the key action needed before introducing the proposed irrigation cost recovery policy in order to sustain water supply and delivery system, upgrade poorly served areas, and ensure continued provision of services. Ensuring farmers acceptability for the cost recovery mechanism and the irrigation water tariff is clearly understood to represent no more than cost of services rendered should be put into consideration before introducing the such policy. Finally, introducing the proposed irrigation cost recovery policy in Egypt helps recovering part of O&M costs, encourage efficient resource use, encourage efficient provision of irrigation service, and achieves equitable water distribution. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Assessment of Land Economic Efficiency in Producing Faba Beans and Lentils in the Old Lands

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2018

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ • Mansoura Journal of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Mansoura University, Vol.(9), No.(6), Mansoura, Egypt, June 2018. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ Egypt is predominantly desert and only 3.7% of its total area is cultivated. Hence, efficient use of the scarce land resources is becoming of highly importance to maintain acceptable level of food security. Despite the importance of faba bean and lentil being two of the major staple food commodities in the Egyptian diet, their local production is unable to meet the growing local consumption needs. Accordingly, the Strategy for Sustainable Agricultural Development until 2030 aims at increasing both of land efficiency and the area planted to legumes. This study, therefore, attempts to assess land economic efficiency in producing both crops in the old lands. To accomplish this goal, the study employed multiple regression model and analysis of variance. The results revealed that land economic efficiency in producing faba bean for the period (2011-2016) ranged between 58-90%, 84-86% and 61-79% in lower, middle and upper Egypt, respectively. As for lentils, the efficiency in lower and upper Egypt ranged between about 23-95% and 25.5-72%, respectively. These results indicate that there still room for improving such efficiency in producing both crops by increasing the area planted to both crops in the districts of higher efficiency. In light of these findings, the study recommends allocating land resources in the districts of higher efficiency in order to ensure potential land capability to produce both crops. Besides, improving the efficiency in the districts of lower efficiency in producing both crops by weed control and soil improvement programs. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ


The Economic Impact of Wheat Intercropping Systems in the Old Lands on the use of Land and Water Resources

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2017

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ • Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics, Vol.(27), No.(2B), Cairo, Egypt, June 2017. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Egypt due to its importance in the Egyptian diet. However, the local wheat production does not cover the domestic consumption and consequently, boosting wheat local production is a national goal to narrow the gap between consumption and production and improve food security. On the other hand, the limited land and water resources available to Egypt precipitate the need to find ways to streamline these resources. These targets can be achieved by means of raising wheat productivity through growing high yielding varieties and using improved agro-techniques e.g. intercropping, where one crop share its life cycle or part of it with another crop. Thus, the current study attempts to assess the economic impact of wheat intercropping systems on wheat production in the old lands, since about 81% of wheat cultivated area is located at the old lands and some wheat intercropping systems are solely suitable for the old lands, as well. Consequently, the objectives of this study are mainly concerned with assessing the impact of using such systems on wheat production, economic efficiency, efficiency of using land and water resources and on some technical and economic variables as compared to wheat monoculture. These systems include wheat intercropping with winter tomato, sugar beet and autumn sugarcane and relay intercropping cotton with wheat. To accomplish these goals, the study depended on descriptive and statistical analysis techniques. The total and variable costs of sole wheat production reached about 5.74 and 3.84 thousand LE/feddan, respectively. The total revenue of sole wheat reached about 9.41 LE/feddan whereas, its B/C ratio reached about 1.64. Moreover, the total and variable costs of intercropped wheat ranged between about 3.24-5.40 and 0.46-2.78 thousand LE/feddan, respectively based on wheat intercropping system used. Besides, the total revenue of intercropped wheat ranged between about 4.70-8.47 thousand LE/feddan upon the system used. Furthermore, the net return on wheat ranged between 1.34-3.07 LE/feddan while, their B/C ratio of these system ranged between 1.31-1.59, indicating the profitability of these system. The results revealed that wheat intercropping systems contribute to improving the efficiency of using land and water resources since water productivity for intercropped wheat ranged between 0.73-1.11 kg/m3 whereas, the economic return of one cubic meter for intercropped wheat ranged between 0.57-1.33 LE/m3 upon the system used. Based on these results, the study revealed that the dissemination of such systems on wheat produced in the old lands increases wheat production by about 82-616 thousand tons upon wheat intercropping system used. This in turn positively affected the deficit in the agricultural trade balance by reducing the value of wheat imports by about USD 725-848 thousand based on the system used. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ


The Economic Impact of Land Reclamation in Egypt

Sayida Amer, Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2017

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics. Vol.(27), No.(4B), Cairo, Egypt, December 2017. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Agricultural land is a finite resource. Therefore, horizontal expansion through reclamation of new lands has become one of the most important pillars of agricultural policy in Egypt. The sustainable agricultural development strategy till 2030 aims at reclaiming about 3.1 million feddans by 2030. However, land reclamation activities slow down due to many constraints e.g. lack of financial resources. These circumstances require an examination of the economic impacts of land reclamation in Egypt. Land reclamation activities in Egypt have been progressing since 1932, with about 400 thousand feddans reclaimed before 1952, and 1.041 million feddans reclaimed until 1981/82. Then, the "comprehensive planning" phase started and about 190, 850, 573, 132 and 326 thousand feddans were reclaimed during the first, second, third, fourth and fifth five-year plans, respectively. Besides, about 232 thousand feddans were reclaimed in 2006/2007, about 186 thousand feddans were reclaimed under the sixth five-year plan and about 22.9 thousand feddans were reclaimed in 12/2013, compared with 22.6 thousand feddans reclaimed in 13/2014, mostly by cooperatives and private sector companies. Moreover, wheat, long berseem, barley and sugar beet were the key winter crops in the new lands during (2013-2015) whereas, maize, rice, peanuts, corn, sesame, cotton and tomatoes are the key summer crops in new lands. Besides, the area planted with fruit trees represented about 85% of the total permeant area in the new land. The average productivity of some crops and vegetables (e.g. faba bean, potatoes, corn and alfalfa) and fruit trees in new lands (e.g. orange, grapes, mangoes, bananas, figs, apricots, pears, apples, plums, olives and almonds) exceeded that obtained in the old lands during the same period. This could be due to modern agricultural techniques. Moreover, the cultivated and cropped areas reached about 8.99 and 15.61 million feddans during this period, respectively. However, the production of this area do not meet food needs for the population, reflecting the low self-sufficiency ratios of some key goods. The new lands contribute to about 84%, 76%, 56%, 51%, 25%, 25%, 13%, 13%, 9%, 7%, 6% , 6%, 85%, 68%, 67%, 63%, 61%, 47% and 38% of the total self-sufficiency rates for peanuts, barley, tomatoes, sesame, potatoes, wheat, cotton seed oil, rice, maize, orange, apricot, mango, grape, olive, apple and banana, respectively. The new land contributes to about 21% of the average net agricultural income during this period. Besides, the new lands are suitable for the production for export through the modal investment farms in the new lands and for the establishment of sorting and packaging stations and projects for freezing and packing vegetables, as well as providing employment opportunities for rural people and addressing the problem of unemployment. In light of these findings, the study recommends that the government play a major role in the establishment of the public utilities required for land reclamation, determining the cropping pattern for these lands, co-ordination between the various ministries and bodies concerned with land reclamation in order to plan and implement the infrastructure in the new lands.


Economic Analysis of Introducing the Cultivation of Fahl Berseem in the Crop Rotation and its Impact on Egyptian Land Capability

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2017

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Economic Assessment of Resource Use Efficiency for Water Users Associations in Egypt

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2016

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ • Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics, Vol.(26), No.(4B), Cairo, Egypt, December 2016. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ This article analyses resource use efficiency for Water Users Associations (WUAs) in Egypt. Data were collected from 200 farmers divided into two groups; Group I “without WUAs” and Group II “with WUAs”. Data Envelopment Analysis was employed to measure, compare and assess the estimated efficiencies for both groups and determine the potential of input and cost savings. Separate analysis of both groups showed that the highest difference between optimum and present use of inputs for wheat were found in irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizer respectively with 35.3%, and 22.7% for Group I and in machine work (35.3%) and fertilizers (27.4%) for Group II. These highest differences were mainly attributed to seeds, manure and labor for maize in Group I and for seeds and labor in Group II. Farmers of Group II were more efficient in using the inputs since they apply better input mix given input price, resulting in higher yields and profitability realized by Group II compared to Group I. This implied that there still exists a potential for increasing the profits of farms in Group I, if the inputs gap between the actual and the best-practice farms is narrowed. To conclude, Group II “with WUAs” ameliorates the efficiency of using resources, enhances the yield and improves livelihoods. The reliability of water supply improved for Group II, indicating positive impact to encourage farmers towards joining WUAs. Finally, joining WUAs is a good approach to increase agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ Key words: economic; WUAs; data envelopment analysis; efficiency; resource; Egypt


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