Biochemical Markers Associated with Disease Resistance to Damping-Off and Root-Rot Diseases of Peanut Mutants and their Productivity

Abstract: Ten mutants of peanut and their parental variety (Giza-5) were screened against damping off and root-rot diseases. Under greenhouse conditions (soil infested with Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani each alone or in mixture), the parental variety Giza-5 was the most susceptible to these fungi and produced the lowest percentage of healthy survived plants whereas the mutants RT-10, RT-11 and RT-7 were the most resistant mutants against both diseases and gave the highest percentage of healthy plants. Similar trend was observed under field conditions as the mutants RT-10, RT-11, RT-7 and RT-12 were the most resistant mutants whereas RT-6, RT-7 and RT-8 were the superior mutants for plant growth, yield and yield components comparing with the parent variety Giza-5 in two successive seasons. Activities of oxidative enzymes, the total and free phenols as well as total and reducing sugars were mostly higher in healthy plants than in infected ones and in the resistant mutants than the susceptible ones. Meanwhile the total free amino acid was lower in healthy and infected roots of resistant mutants in comparison with susceptible ones.
Studying the SDS-protein banding patterns of the ten peanut mutants leaves (as a result of gamma irradiation) and their parental variety grown under normal (non-stressed) and disease stress conditions was found to be useful in selection for resistance against damping-off and root-rot diseases. The obtained results revealed no resemblance between any mutant and its parental variety and a unique fingerprint characterized each.
Publication year 2006
Pages 53-74
Country Egypt
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