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Analyzing Agribusiness Value Chains: Asa Starter of Competitiveness in the Future

Youssef Hamada Abd El-rahman, 2021

Within the value chain analysis, how much value is created is cannot be avoided, and how it is distributed. This is an extra accounting point of view, and we titled it a value assessment approach. Particularly for the context of agribusiness chains, the question of how much value each actor creates, and how it gets is on the constant discussion. Sincethe main characteristic of agri-food chains is the different farm and at farm gate marketstructures,whereprimarystagesshowaspectsofcompetitionwhile industry and distribution tend to show degrees of market power, this conductsfrequentconflictsbetweenactors.Beingabletodevelopindicators in this regard, helps to better understand and tackle those conflicts. Where, development organizations have been playing a central role enriching the body of point of view. Mainly with intervention objectives and with the aimofgivingtheirtechniciansatooltoworkwithvaluechainactors,there has been a proliferation of manuals and guidelines. This isimportant particularlytotheagri-foodsector,asdevelopingcountriesenterintofood globalvaluechainsasprimaryproducers,inmostcaseswithscarceornone value-added, and showing poor conditions for the actorsinvolved. Havingobtainedthesetools,approaches,andpointofviewsthatoperate asmethodologicalframeworksfortheanalysisofagribusinessvaluechains, and with a better understanding of the multidimensional aspects of the concept, further analysis should be oriented to develop mathematical framework models and objective indicators to measure competitiveness and performance in agribusiness value chains. Where,the aim of this research is to compare three methods of trace competitiveness and performanceinagribusinessvaluechains.TheeffectsofAgribusinessvalue chains assessment (AVCA), environmental agribusiness value chains assessment (EAVCA) and environmentally extended input-output agribusinessanalysis(EE-IOAA)asavaluechainconfirmedthattheentire waterconsumptionformaximumcultivationreducedby28.159and28.181% inside the old and new lands of Egypt and that the overall region of crops isprobably931749.034and319914.983hectaresplantedwithintheantique and new lands of Egypt, in addition to the anticipated model presents a higher net benefit than the current model. The general net profit of the heterogeneouscaseemergesas186530.800and69395.275millionEPbetter than the full of thehomogeneous case (166259.954 and 20074.227 million EP) after applying the model, further to the entire cost of crops in heterogeneouscase40629.067and13102.565millionEPthatdidnotreach thetotalhomogeneouscase(34968.102and8436.099millionEP).Thisend resultmayadditionallyimplythatthedistinctionamongtheheterogeneous instances had a massive impact on the optimal solution. According to financial and economic analyzes, the inner annual rate of return (IRR) became better than the current model of the area and increased by 14.98 and 118.32% within the vintage and new lands of Egypt, and the absolute riskofoptimalcultivationisdecreasedby23.31and65.61%.Forthisreason, the Agribusiness value chain assessment (AVCA) as a value chain can be applied in the agriculture sector within the land ofEgypt.

Potentialities of Fava Beans Self- Sufficiency

Rehab Mohamed Abd El daym, 2020

_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Master Thesis: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Legume crops are considered to be one of the most important agricultural crops in Egypt. It is the first bean crop in Egyptian terms of cultivated area and total production. Consumption, where green and dry seeds are used in human nutrition due to the high content of protein up to 30% and carbohydrates to 58% in addition to it contains vitamin A, B, and C, and is characterized by high potassium, iron and calcium, and uses the bean husk and the result of secondary known as hay Beans as feed for livestock and poultry, as well as a course in improving soil properties and fertility by increasing atmospheric nitrogen to the soil will benefit the next crop grown after faba bean. Despite the economic and social importance of the faba bean crop in Egypt, domestic production does not meet the consumption requirements, the area cultivated from this strategic crop decreased during the period (1990 - 2015) from about 344.6 thousand feddans in 1990 to about 81.9 thousand feddans in 2015, a decrease of about 76% of the cultivated area in 1990. Hence the problem of this study is the existence of a food gap between what is produced and consumed from this crop, especially in light of the steady increase in the population, which led to an increase in the quantity of imports to meet the requirements of national consumption, where amount of imports of faba bean increased from about 73 thousand tons From 2000 to about 650.79 thousand tons in 2016, an increase of about 891%, The value of imports reached 2153 million pounds in 2015. This study examined the food gap of faba bean and how to reduce it by studying the development of production, productivity, area, consumption, production costs, net yield, relative importance of production cost items, estimation of production functions, study of the efficiency of using agricultural resources, and the study of the most important factors affecting the function of faba bean supply response. _______________________________________________________________________________________________

Yellow Maize Value Chain and The Role of Agricultural Cooperative Societies

Yehia Yehia Elheffne, Doaa Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed Ahmed Ali, 2020

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Egyptian Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MLAR), Vol.(98), No.(1), 2020. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Despite the efforts made to limit imports of yellow corn and try to control the price policy of feed to secure the poultry industry, which is a major source of animal protein, the implementation measures lost their way. In 2015 the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation submitted a proposal approved by the Prime Minister stating the imposition of fees estimated at 500 EGP for every ton of yellow corn imports used in the poultry industry, which achieves a return of about 600 million EGP annually, which is deposited in a fund to balance crop prices. However, the Ministry of Trade intervened and stopped the decision after a complaint it received from the importing companies. This was followed by the state’s establishment of the Contract Cultivation Center in accordance with Republican Decree No. 14 of 2015, which would promote contractual planting of crops and facilitate the marketing of crops, especially strategic crops, but the center is still not activated. Which leads us to ask, is there a role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing the yellow corn crop? Are agricultural cooperatives the entity capable of efficiently marketing the yellow corn crop? What are the marketing policies that stimulate farmers? The research aimed at identifying the role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing the yellow corn crop, through identifying the current status of the yellow corn crop and analyzing the value chain of the yellow corn crop. The research found the following: The relative importance of the cultivated area increased from about 7.3% in 2014 to about 14% in 2018. The average area of the yellow corn crop represents about 10% of the total average area of cereal crops, which is estimated at 7.6 million feddans, during the period (2014-2018). By comparing the agricultural price with the import price in the port of arrival, we find that the import price is higher than the farm price during the years of study, in addition to the high average import price over the average farm price, as it was estimated at 3016 pounds compared to about 2,633 pounds as an average farm price during the period (2014-2018). Domestic consumption of yellow corn also increased from about 6.2 million tons in 2014 to about 11.6 million tons in 2018, with an annual average of about 9.3 million tons during the period (2014-2018), and then the average consumption gap was estimated at 6.9 tons. The respondents from the association directors in the research sample explained that the associations do not distribute any kind of seeds to farmers, and this is not limited to yellow corn but for all crops, and they emphasized that the association’s role is limited to distributing fertilizers only. They attributed this to the lack of financial resources of the associations, the great increase in the price of seeds beyond the capabilities of the financial association, the limited production available from the central administration of seeds, which would not allow covering all the needs of farmers throughout the republic during the season, the lack of financial liquidity to buy seeds from companies for distribution where Companies require sale and payment in advance, not on credit The marketing margin at the wholesaler was estimated at 900 pounds / ton for grains, which represented about 27% of the farm price, while the marketing margin for the retailer was estimated at 950 pounds / ton. By studying the distribution of the consumer pound, it was found that the share of the farmer from the consumer pound is estimated at 57%, while the wholesaler's share is 21% at the level of the research sample in Beheira Governorate, and about 58%, 20% at the level of Assiut governorate. Then, it is noticed that the farmer's share of the consumer pound has increased at the level of the sample governorates, which indicates an increase in marketing efficiency. Where the higher the farmer's share of the consumer's pound, the greater the marketing efficiency. Recommendations: 1. It’s necessary for the state to play an active role in supporting the expansion of the cultivation of yellow corn through the following: • Establishing an official crop supply system, like other strategic crops • It’s necessary for the state to put a protective package to reduce import and support the local product 2. Establishing a qualitative agricultural cooperative societies specializing in the yellow corn crop to support the expansion in the production and marketing of the crop by providing production requirements, providing the necessary information and extension services to farmers and ensuring the marketing of the crop at a fair and appropriate price that achieves a profitable profit margin __________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Role of Agricultural Cooperatives in Foreign Trade Case Study "General Potato Growers Co-Operative"

Doaa Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, 2020

________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, Faculty of agriculture - Alexandria university, Vol.(65), No.(4), Mansoura, July 2020. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ It indicates that agricultural imports represent about 18.6% of the total agricultural GDP and the average is 500.4 billion pounds in 2018, while exports represent about 10% of the total agricultural output in 2018.The value of the agricultural trade balance deficit amounted to about $ 2.4 billion in 2018, the percentage of agricultural exports Agricultural imports were about 53% in 2018, which basically leads to an increase in agricultural exports. In light of the state's desire to increase the outcome of agricultural exports, agricultural cooperative societies can have a prominent role in marketing and exporting agricultural products, as this leads to improving the bargaining position of farmers, expanding the field of disposal of their members' products, and then reducing the deficit in the agricultural trade balance and increasing the value of agricultural output, However, agricultural cooperative societies in their current status were not able to interact with international and local variables and did not achieve the desired goals, as agricultural cooperatives did not give a complete opportunity to market the crops. Rather, the limited role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing agricultural crops of all kinds led to instability of farmers' income, which led to the instability of farmers ’income. As a result, the farms resort to merchants and middlemen to sell their crops at unfair prices in many times. Hence, the agricultural foreign trade sector lacks returns from the participation of the cooperative agricultural sector in foreign trade, which has negatively affected the strength of this sector and its ability to penetrate foreign markets. Then the research aimed to identify the role of cooperatives in agricultural foreign trade, in addition to identifying the problems that hinder agricultural cooperatives from playing their role in increasing the volume of agricultural exports and reducing the value of imports through cooperation with cooperative societies and entities producing abroad. In achieving its objectives, the research relied on conducting a case study for the General Agricultural Cooperative Society of Potato Producers by applying SWOT analysis. Where the results of the quantitative SWOT analysis showed that the association has significant internal strengths, which encourages support, development and utilization of the association so that it does not turn into weaknesses that negatively affect the association’s performance. And then there are good external opportunities for the association, which encourages support for the association and take advantage of these opportunities to increase the association’s activity in the field of export, taking into account not to neglect it so that it does not turn into a threat that poses a danger to the association and its activities. Hence, the research recommends facilitating the General Assembly for Potato Producers to obtain lands in safe areas so that they can be exploited in expanding agriculture, examining the delta lands to discover safe lands to increase crop areas, and taking advantage of the advantages of Cooperation Law No. 122, which previously contributed to supporting the role of the association In production and export, by canceling the ministerial decisions that were issued to it, which limited its advantages and obstructed the course of the association. The necessity to raise the legal awareness of the members of the boards of directors of the associations in them regarding the texts related to the field of agricultural marketing in the cooperation law Keywords : Agricultural Trade Balance, General potato growers co-operative producers, SWOT Quantitative Analysis ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Estimating the Value of Investments and Imports for Achieving Food Security for Fish

Sahar Kamara, 2020

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Environment, Development and Sustainability, De-Springer.ogg, Netherlands, Vol.(22), No.(8), December 2020. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ We research current scenarios to estimate the value of the investments and imports needed to achieve different levels of food security for fish in Egypt. We use the strategic stock estimation equations, the food security coefficient, the distribution of Bernoulli, and the standard errors at 95% confidence. The results are as follows. The strategic stock of fish reached 376,350 tons. With local consumption of 1.71 million tons in 2015, the fish food Security coefficient was estimated at 0.22. The relative importance of the contribution of local production of fish security ranged from 14.05 to 20.95% at 95% confidence, while that of imports ranged from 1.15 to 8.05% at 95% confidence. Achieving full fish security requires an increase in production by 1.09 million tons to at most 1.62 million tons and an increase in fish imports from 88,760 tons to at most 621,350 tons, both at 95% confidence. The value of additional investments at a 10% discount rate to achieve full fish security ranged from at least 6.28 billion pounds to at most 9.35 billion pounds, while the value of the increase in fish imports ranged from at least 1.41 billion pounds to at least 9.85 billion pounds at 95% confidence. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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