Journal      [Total: 31145 ]

Knowledge Base Tool for Enhancing Expert Systems Dialogue

Abd Elrahman Mohamed, 2019


Available diagnosis expert systems ask users many questions in order to identify the diseases. These questions are sometimes vague and need more interpretations. Further, using a lot of questions does not satisfy the end-user and turn the expert system to be boring and unfriendly. In this paper, I introduce a tool for building knowledge base. Also, I propose an approach for enhancing expert system dialogue with end-user. The proposed approach was applied in plant diseases. Instead of just asking the end user only text questions, images for different symptoms on different part of the plants are displayed to him. Then the end-user selects the images which are approximate to his plant symptoms. Finally, the system adapts the dialogue. This process is repeated till reaching the final diagnosis. The proposed tool is a web-based, and it adopts XML to store ontology, schema of knowledge base and knowledge base. The proposed tool was applied in building a prototype for barley knowledge base and diagnosis expert system.

Production of Healthy Chips Ready to Eat Using Potato, Green Pea and Lupine Flour for Malnourished Children

Maha Kamal Ali, 2019


Potato chips are the most popular snack consumed especially by children. These chips are considered unhealthy due to high levels of fat and salt content. This study was conducted to produce healthy chips from potato, lupine and green pea flour and enhance the nutritional value of chips. The chips were prepared using Potato, lupine and green pea flour at different ratios (100%:0%:0%, 90%:10%:0%, 85%:15%:0%, 90%:0%:10%, 85%:0%:15%, 80%:10%:10% and 70%:15%:15% respectively). Proximate analysis, minerals content, amino acids composition, physicochemical analysis, biological active compounds analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out on the product chips samples. It showed that moisture content ranged between (7.43-8.77), protein content (7.89-16.07), crude ether extract content (3.90-6.31), ash content (3.00-3.75), crude fiber (2.75-4.12) and carbohydrate content (74.77-61.66). The Minerals analysis revealed that sample G (70% potato flour and 15% lupine flour and 15% green pea flour) was the highest in potassium, iron, calcium and zinc content with low sodium content. The amino acids composition was found that the sample G contained the highest percentage of the essential amino acids including (lysine, phenylalanine threonine and valine). Physicochemical analysis revealed the following ranges: bulk density (0.74-0.91g/ml), water absorption (1.70-1.94g/g), swelling capacity (1.12-1.95ml/g) and pH (5.44 -5.89). Biological active compounds analysis reported the following ranges (mg/100g): total phenolic content (790.84 -1783.64) and antioxidant activity (82.78%-97.16%). While, sensory evaluation results showed that no significant difference between the products of the seven chips samples. Conclusively healthy chips can be prepared successfully from each potato, green Pea as well as lupine Flour as a nutritious snack to children suffering from malnutrition. Keywords: Healthy Chips, Lupine, Green Pea, Amino Acids, Minerals, Antioxidant Activity, Malnutrition

Comparative Study between Fermented Lactic Acid Bacteria Solution and Brine Solution on Reduction of Acrylamide formed during Production of Fried Potato

Rehab Naiem, Maha Kamal Ali, 2019


Recently, acrylamide has become one of the most important and most serious global problems, so it has been classified as a potential carcinogen and known to be a neurotoxic, occurs in heated starchy foods such as potato products (French fries and potato crisps). The present research addressed this issue by determining levels of the acrylamide precursors (asparagine and reducing sugars) and levels of the acrylamide in French fries made from two cultivars of potatoes (Cara and Banba) after immersion in fermented lactic acid bacteria solution (60 and 90 min) or brine solution (5 days) comparing to the control samples after frying process. The results indicated that the brine solution treatment appeared better sensorial properties with the panelists than the other treatments in both varieties, whereas Cara 90 and Banba 90 appeared better color and texture than the other samples using a Hunter colorimeter and a Brookfield texture analyzer. Also Cara 90 and Banba 90 treatments showed the lowest values of asparagine (2.50 and 9.08 mg/100 g), glucose (34.00 and 34.12 mg/100 g), sucrose (60.08 and 21.09 mg/100 g) and intermediate values of fructose (6.47 and 4.71 mg/100 g). With keeping in mind that asparagine and glucose values in the Cara cultivar were lower than the Banba cultivar and the opposite was found in fructose and sucrose values. And finally it was noticed that the acrylamide formation was the lowest in Cara 90 and Banba 90 (104 and 152 ?g/kg) treatments, whereas the highest values of the acrylamide were for the control samples of Banba and Cara (823 and 692 ?g/kg) and it was found that the Cara variety was better than in most of determined parameters than the Banba variety. Keywords Acrylamide; Acrylamide precursors; Asparagine; Lactic acid bacteria

Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Some Biological Parameters of Blood and Liver Upon Mercury Exposure

Maha Kamal Ali, AMAL MAHMOND, 2018


Mercury is considered one of the pollution problems as a toxic metal. The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of L- ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against chronic mercury exposure in white New Zealand male rabbits. The efficacy of vitamin C against induced mercury toxicity was evaluated by estimating some biochemical parameters in both blood plasma and liver tissues. Such parameters are generally used to evaluate the individual health status. Statistical analysis has been carried out using the SAS program. The results indicated that inducing both low and high doses of mercury caused significant increases in blood glucose, total lipids, triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol, whereas these treatments caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the HDL only after the long term exposure. Values of AST , ALT ,and acid phosphatase (ACP) in plasma and liver were significantly elevated after the short as well as the long term of treatment, while significant decreases were observed in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetyl choline esterase (AChE) activity due to the long exposure to mercury. The results of oxidative stress markers (TBARS and GSH) showed significant hazardous effect of the mercury exposure. Oral treatment with vitamin C decreased all the hazardous health effects caused by inducing mercuric acetate. Accordingly, addition of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant is recommended to be included in the human diets for its efficacy role in preventing the body from the mercury toxicity. Key words: Mercury toxicity, vitamin C, biochemical parameters, blood plasma,liver enzymes.

Study Impact of Integration Between Cover Crop and Weed Control Treatments onWeeds and Improved Sugarcane Productivety

Mohammed Mekky, Abdelrahim Radwan, 2018


A filed experiment was carried out at Al-Mattana Agricultural Research station, Agricultural Research Center, Luxor Governorate during 2015/16 and 2016/17 seasons, to study the effect of intercropping soybean (cover crop) with sugarcane crop, sole sugarcane and weed control treatments i.e. (Stomp at 1.75 l/f. hand hoeing twice at 25 and 45 days after planting and unweeded check) as the integrated weed control on fresh and dry weight of weeds (g/m2) and yield of primary crop (sugarcane) and secondary crop (soybean) which intercropping with sugarcane in natural infested soil by weeds. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) under split plot arrogant with four replication, intercropping treatments was put in the main plots and weed control treatment in split plots with four replications for each treatment.

Manufacture of pickled and un-pickled high fat soft cheese using olive and sunflower oleogels

Rehab Gab-Allah Gab-Allah, 2018


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was the use of construction unsaturated oil in the manufacture of soft cheese. Oleogels were made from olive oil (00) or sunflower oil (SO) and bee wax (BW). They were used as fat replacer in the manufacture of pickled or un-pickled soft cheese. Using oleogels slightly decreased the pH values but had no effect on the moisture and fat contents of soft cheese, Cheese made with oleogels exhibited higher values for the texture parameters namely: hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness but slightly lower cohesiveness than cheese made with milk fat. Scanning electron micrographs displayed oleogels showed a compact network with small unifOlm fat droplets embedded in the protein matrix. Sensory evaluation indicated that soft cheese of acceptable quality can be made with the oleogels.


Shimaa Mohamed El-Sbayee, 2017


The research aimed to determine the knowledge extension needs level of vegetable growers concerning the technical recommendations for the safe use of pesticides in Ismailia and Sharkia Governorates, also to identify their sources of information about the safe use of the pesticides, in addition to identify the problems which face them releated to use of pesticides, as well as to determine the relationship between the knowledge needs degree of the respondents concerning the safe use of the pesticides and some independent studied variables, and to determine the differences between the average of knowledge needs degree of the respondents in the two studied governorates and the technical recommendations of both preparing pesticides and its use, protection from its poison, and its store. The research was conducted in Ismailia and Sharkia Governorates as a large area of cultivated vegetables. By the same criterion 3 districts in each governorate were selected, while one village was selected in each one. A random simple sample represent 10% of the growers were selected. Amounted 95 respondents from the studied villages of Ismailia and 115 respondents from Sharkia Governorate. Data were collected by using a pretested questionnaire through a personal interview from respondents. Frequencies, percentages, arithmetic means, standard deviation, coefficient of variance “T” test, chi2, coefficient of concordance were used to analyze and show data. The results could be revealed as follows: - High knowledge need levels of the respondents were 59.13% in Sharkia regarding the technical recommendations of the safe use of pesticides and 41.05% in Ismailia governorates. - There were a significant differences between average of knowledge need degrees concerning the safe use of pesticides in the two studied governorates. - The most important sources of information of the respondents in Ismalia and Sharkia Governorates were: personal experience, merchant of pesticides, and the extension agent. - The major problems which face the respondents in Ismailia Governorate were: pesticides from unknown source, lack of experience of the extension agent, in Sharkia were: unknown pesticides, and expired pesticides.

Farmers ' Adoption for Wheat Cultivation on Terraces Using Direct Seeding in Halls in Some Villages of Kafr Al Sheikh Governorate

Dr. Abd El-Karim Abd El-Aziz Zeyada, 2017


This research was aiming at identifying the source of listening of the farmers respondents about the technical recommendation of wheat cultivation method on terraces using direct seeding, the rate of their adoption for each of these technical recommendation, determining the correlation relationship between the degree of farmers 'adoption for these technical recommendation and the independent variables addressed, determining the percentage of the contribution of each of the independent variables that have significant correlation relationship in clarifying the total variance in the degree of farmers ' adoption for those recommendation, in addition to identifying the constraints facing the respondents for this method from their point of view. This research has been conducted in Kafr Al Sheikh Governorate where three districts were selected randomly. They districts are Desouk, Metobas, and Fowa. Similarly, one village from each of those districts was selected including Shaba village, Desuok ; Meniat Al Morshad, Metobas; and Sendyoun, Fowa. Then a random sample with a total of 205 respondents was selected, according to Kreijice & Morgan, among the wheat farmers of the selected three villages. The data was collected by personal interview questionnaire during January 2017 after carrying out the pre test and the adjustment needed for the questionnaire. For the analysis and tabulation of the results, frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient for person, and step wise were used. The following are the main results 1. The main sources of listening of the respondents about of wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding were firstly the local leaders followed by personal experience, agricultural inputs traders, family members, and neighbors. 2. The rate of the adoption of the respondents for the recommendation of wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding was low (53%), medium (41%) and high (6%). 3. The lowest rate of adoption were adding 15gm super phosphate for feddan (49.3%), broadcasting of super phosphate before the second plowing (48.9%), adding 100kg of nitrogen per feddan (47.3%), getting rid of plant residuals to control rats (46.3%), destroying rats halls or flooding them with water (44.4%), control of birds using wood pieces covered with adhesive materials (43.4%), controlling of caterpillar insect and the rodent worm by toxin (42.9%), adding the toxic trap to control the caterpillar and rodent worm after the first irrigation (41.5%) , putting the toxic trap nearby the hall (40.5%), adding the toxic trap at sunset (40%), prevent the chemical spraying to control aphids insect before flowering stage (39.8%), controlling of snails and larvae to get rid of the residues of the previous crop (38.5%), manual collection for snails and larvae and burning them outside the field (37.6%), apply the toxic trap to control yellow, orange and black rust diseases (35.6%), control of white mildew chemically (34.6%), control of yellow dwarf disease in barely with recommended chemical spraying to control the yellow dwarf disease before flowering (33.7%), inoculation the land with ammonia (33.2%) inoculation the land with ammonia at one dose (32.7%), inoculation the land with ammonia after land preparation (31.2%), cultivate the land after 4 days from inoculation the land (30.2%), control al zomair weed with recommended chemicals (29.8%), chemical spraying to control the weed after dew (29.3%), preventing the chemical spraying for weed control at hot atmosphere (28.3%), prevent chemical sparing for weed control at windy weather (26.8%) , adding 45kg of wheat per feddan (26.3%), irrigate between the steps (25.4%), allocate 3-5 seeds per hall (24.9%), leaving 10cm between rows (24.3%), making halls in rows (23.4%), leave 10cm distance between halls (21.5%), the width of the step ranges between 100 – 120cm (20.5%), and laser leveling (19%) 4. There were 5 independent variables clarifying that 37.2% of the total variance in the degree of adoption of the technical extension recommendation for the adoption for wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding in halls, among which 24.5% for the degree of education of the respondents, 6% for the availability of extension services in the area, 3.4% for the degree of innovativeness , 2% for the size of wheat cultivated area at terrace in halls, and 1.3% for the degree of knowing the hazards of late planting of wheat. 5. The respondents claimed that there are 11 constraints facing them, while using the method of wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding in hall, from their point of views. They are descending as follows: the high price of seeds; unavailability of laser equipment; lack of seeds in the cooperative society; high price of fertilizers and chemical pesticides and insecticides; low selling price for the crop; unavailability of extension demonstration field for wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding in halls; lack of extension meetings and seminars for wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding in halls; unavailability of wheat harvester fitted with the width of terrace; high costs of agricultural laborers; lack of extension publication for wheat cultivation on terraces using direct seeding in halls; and lack of irrigation water.

Nutritional Practices Of Rural Women In some villages of

Ebtsam Mohamed Harhash, 2017


The research targeted mainly to idenlify the nutritional practices of the investigated rural women concerning the selection of food kinds, purchesingfood, preparing,cooking,serving,storing and keepingfood,aswell as,making use of the food residules,determine the implementation level of the investigated rural women regarding the nutritional practices of the five studied processes, finally identify the information resources and food sources provided by family. the research was conducted on a(376) random sample of farmers holdess wives who were selected from three villages of Gharbia covernorate.Data werecollected from the studied area by using pretested questionnaire and ehrough personal intesuiews with farmers wives ,tabulation, frequencies and percentages were used to present data results.. The Study revealed the Following Results:- 1. the implementation of the Rural women of the nutritional practices related to the selection of fresh vegetables and fruit was high,as it implemented by 97.1% of the respondents, while it was moderate for five practices and low for two practices. 2. the implementation of the nutritional practices related to the purchase of food were high for two practices,which were;- relying on young children to go to market, and read the expiration date on tins before buying, While the percentage was moderate for three practices and low for in three practices. 3. Related to preparing and cooking food practices the high proportions were found in five practices which were;- soak legumes in water before cooking, put potatoes after they are fried on newspapers or colored paper, preporotion of food loved by the family members, remove the fishes inner parts before its Grilled, and cut the salad vegtables before eating directly. While the percentage was moderate for two practices and low for in five practices. 4. concerning Storing and Keeping food the high proportions were found in four practices which were ;- note the stored food (potatoes, garlic, and onions), clean storge place before usage, preserving frozen food for more then ayear, and put the food in the refrigerator immediately after its temperature calms down, While the percentage was moderate for three practices, and low in three practices. 5. concerning making use of the food Residules the high proportions of the investigated Rural women were found in four practices which were ;- using milk raib in making pastries, using food residuals in feeding birds, using the remain soup in making the next days food, and using the left food from the previous day to make anew kind of diet, While the percentage was moderate for two practices and low in three practices. 6. three quarters of the Rural women respondents with percentage reached to 87.2% were found in the intermediate- level category concerning the im7plementation of the practices in the five studied processes, while 12.8% were found in high implementation-level category. 7. The most important information resources of the respondents ryral women about food were relatives,friends,neighbors and television respectively. 8. the main sources of food produced by the family of the respondents rural women are raising poultry and animals.

Farmers' Knowledge Of The Physiological Disorders Of Orange In Some Villages At Eltahady Area in South And West Eltahreer in Beheira Governorate

Dr. Abd El-Aty Sokar, Mohamed Ahmed Zaid, 2017


The research aimes were to determine The : respondents farmers knowledge level concerning orange fruits physiological disorders. The correlation between some respondents characteristics as independent variables and Their knowledge level concerning orange fruits physiological disorders ass dependent variable. identifying The independent variables which independent The variation in The dependent variable. identify respondents information sources in This domain . This research was conducted in three villages famous for orange cultivation in Eltahady area south and west Eltahreer. in Beheira Governorate.These villages were Elazima. Ein Galoot. and Elbasatin. random sample were chosen amount to 120 respondents according to Krejcie and Morjan 59 respondents of Azima village. 40 respondents of Ein Galoot village and 21 respondents of Elbasatin village . Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire during November 2016. mean. standard deviation. frequencies. percentages. (T) test. (F) test. simple correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used for data presentation and analyze . The most important results of The research could be summarized as follwos: ? 47.5 % of The respondents with low knowledge level concerning orange physiological disorders shape. physiological disorders reasons and The practiees to avoid These disorders . ? There are significant positive relationship at 0.01 level between respondents knowledge level concerning orange physiological disorders as a dependent variable and number of respondents educational years. agricultural cultivated land. size of orange farm. number of respondents experience years in orange cultivation. degree of sati's faction about orange crop yield. and agricultural innovativeness as independent variables . ? There are significant negative relationship at 0.01 between respondents knowledge level concerning orange physiological disorders as dependent variable and wastage anount of orange fruits as independent variables. ? There are significant positive relationship at 0.05 level between The studied dependent variable and orange productivity average and achievement motivation as independent variables . ? There are for independent variables interpret 33.9 % of The total variation of respondents knowledge level concerning oranges fruits physiological disorders They are size of oranges farm. orange fruit wastage quantity. degree of satisfaction about orange crup return and agricultural innovativeness . ? respondent personal experience. pesticide and fertilizers shopkeepers. neighbors. and friends. private agricultural engineers. web. agricultural fairs are The most important information sources about orange physiological disorders where said that 93.3 % . 71.7 % . 64.2 % . of The respondents respectively.