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Can Irrigation Water Saving Options Cope with Water Scarcity in Egypt?

Enas Abbas Mohammed SALEH, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research (IJAAER), Department of Agriculture-Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Vol. (6), Issue (2), 2414-8245 (E), June 2020. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Egypt is faced by potential water scarcity due to increasing water demand. Hence, agriculture is under stress due to increasing competition for available water. Water-saving efforts should be made, especially in the old lands where irrigation pressing problems prevails, to increase water use efficiency in agriculture. This study attempts to answer two questions: What would happen if water-saving technologies and practices were scaled?up over the old lands during (2013-2017)? What is the impact of using such technologies and practices on water consumption and efficiency and food security in Egypt? Quantitative methods of analysis were used for published data to address both questions; water consumption, saving, efficiency, and self-sufficiency. The results show that laser levelling ranked first in terms of water saving for most crops, followed by the technology package promoted by the Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project, dry planting, deficit irrigation, and alternate furrow irrigation. Laser levelling, the technology package, deficit irrigation, dry planting, raised bed planting, and alternate furrow irrigation were the best alternatives from water productivity standpoints whereas, laser levelling, the technology package, deficit irrigation, and raised bed planting gained the highest economic efficiency for most crops. Using most of these technologies and practices improved the self-sufficiency. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Sustainable Food Security Via Climate–Smart Agriculture

Youssef Hamada Abd El-rahman, 2020

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ • Indian Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, Vol.(1), No.(2), October 2020. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)is an approach to manual the management of agriculture inside the epoch of climate change. The abstract idea was first released in 2009, and due to then has been reshaped through inputs and interactions of stakeholders concerned in growing and achieving the concept. Climate-smart agriculture goals to supply globally relevant standard son dealing with agriculture for food security under neath climate change that could provide found at ion for politicking guides and pointers through multilateral organizations, inclusive of UN’s FAO. The major features of the climate-smart agriculture approach have been grown in reaction to limitations in the international climate politicking arena in the grasp of agriculture’s role in food security and its capability for shooting synergies among adaptability and mitigation. Recent controversies that have arisen over climate-smart agriculture is rooted in longest and in debates in each climate and sustainable agricultural developed policy spheres. The sein clued the role of growing countries, and especially their agricultural sectors, in reduction worldwide GHG emissions, as well as the choice of technologies that may be enhanced sustainable shapes of agriculture. Since the term climate-smart agriculture’ becomes widely adopted before the evolution of an official conceptual frame to perform the approach, there has been substantial variation in meanings applied to the term, which also contributed to controversies. As the body of work on the concept, methods, apparatus and programs of the climate- smart agriculture technique expands, it’s far turning into clearer what it may offer. Ultimately, climate-smart agriculture’s utility might be judged by way of its effectiveness in integrating climate change reaction into sustainable agricultural growth strategies on the ground, The aim of this. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ


Yellow Maize Value Chain and The Role of Agricultural Cooperative Societies

Yehia Yehia Elheffne, Doaa Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed Ahmed Ali, 2020

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__________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Egyptian Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MLAR), Vol.(98), No.(1), 2020. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Despite the efforts made to limit imports of yellow corn and try to control the price policy of feed to secure the poultry industry, which is a major source of animal protein, the implementation measures lost their way. In 2015 the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation submitted a proposal approved by the Prime Minister stating the imposition of fees estimated at 500 EGP for every ton of yellow corn imports used in the poultry industry, which achieves a return of about 600 million EGP annually, which is deposited in a fund to balance crop prices. However, the Ministry of Trade intervened and stopped the decision after a complaint it received from the importing companies. This was followed by the state’s establishment of the Contract Cultivation Center in accordance with Republican Decree No. 14 of 2015, which would promote contractual planting of crops and facilitate the marketing of crops, especially strategic crops, but the center is still not activated. Which leads us to ask, is there a role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing the yellow corn crop? Are agricultural cooperatives the entity capable of efficiently marketing the yellow corn crop? What are the marketing policies that stimulate farmers? The research aimed at identifying the role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing the yellow corn crop, through identifying the current status of the yellow corn crop and analyzing the value chain of the yellow corn crop. The research found the following: The relative importance of the cultivated area increased from about 7.3% in 2014 to about 14% in 2018. The average area of the yellow corn crop represents about 10% of the total average area of cereal crops, which is estimated at 7.6 million feddans, during the period (2014-2018). By comparing the agricultural price with the import price in the port of arrival, we find that the import price is higher than the farm price during the years of study, in addition to the high average import price over the average farm price, as it was estimated at 3016 pounds compared to about 2,633 pounds as an average farm price during the period (2014-2018). Domestic consumption of yellow corn also increased from about 6.2 million tons in 2014 to about 11.6 million tons in 2018, with an annual average of about 9.3 million tons during the period (2014-2018), and then the average consumption gap was estimated at 6.9 tons. The respondents from the association directors in the research sample explained that the associations do not distribute any kind of seeds to farmers, and this is not limited to yellow corn but for all crops, and they emphasized that the association’s role is limited to distributing fertilizers only. They attributed this to the lack of financial resources of the associations, the great increase in the price of seeds beyond the capabilities of the financial association, the limited production available from the central administration of seeds, which would not allow covering all the needs of farmers throughout the republic during the season, the lack of financial liquidity to buy seeds from companies for distribution where Companies require sale and payment in advance, not on credit The marketing margin at the wholesaler was estimated at 900 pounds / ton for grains, which represented about 27% of the farm price, while the marketing margin for the retailer was estimated at 950 pounds / ton. By studying the distribution of the consumer pound, it was found that the share of the farmer from the consumer pound is estimated at 57%, while the wholesaler's share is 21% at the level of the research sample in Beheira Governorate, and about 58%, 20% at the level of Assiut governorate. Then, it is noticed that the farmer's share of the consumer pound has increased at the level of the sample governorates, which indicates an increase in marketing efficiency. Where the higher the farmer's share of the consumer's pound, the greater the marketing efficiency. Recommendations: 1. It’s necessary for the state to play an active role in supporting the expansion of the cultivation of yellow corn through the following: • Establishing an official crop supply system, like other strategic crops • It’s necessary for the state to put a protective package to reduce import and support the local product 2. Establishing a qualitative agricultural cooperative societies specializing in the yellow corn crop to support the expansion in the production and marketing of the crop by providing production requirements, providing the necessary information and extension services to farmers and ensuring the marketing of the crop at a fair and appropriate price that achieves a profitable profit margin __________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Role of Agricultural Cooperatives in Foreign Trade Case Study "General Potato Growers Co-Operative"

Doaa Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, Faculty of agriculture - Alexandria university, Vol.(65), No.(4), Mansoura, July 2020. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ It indicates that agricultural imports represent about 18.6% of the total agricultural GDP and the average is 500.4 billion pounds in 2018, while exports represent about 10% of the total agricultural output in 2018.The value of the agricultural trade balance deficit amounted to about $ 2.4 billion in 2018, the percentage of agricultural exports Agricultural imports were about 53% in 2018, which basically leads to an increase in agricultural exports. In light of the state's desire to increase the outcome of agricultural exports, agricultural cooperative societies can have a prominent role in marketing and exporting agricultural products, as this leads to improving the bargaining position of farmers, expanding the field of disposal of their members' products, and then reducing the deficit in the agricultural trade balance and increasing the value of agricultural output, However, agricultural cooperative societies in their current status were not able to interact with international and local variables and did not achieve the desired goals, as agricultural cooperatives did not give a complete opportunity to market the crops. Rather, the limited role of agricultural cooperatives in marketing agricultural crops of all kinds led to instability of farmers' income, which led to the instability of farmers ’income. As a result, the farms resort to merchants and middlemen to sell their crops at unfair prices in many times. Hence, the agricultural foreign trade sector lacks returns from the participation of the cooperative agricultural sector in foreign trade, which has negatively affected the strength of this sector and its ability to penetrate foreign markets. Then the research aimed to identify the role of cooperatives in agricultural foreign trade, in addition to identifying the problems that hinder agricultural cooperatives from playing their role in increasing the volume of agricultural exports and reducing the value of imports through cooperation with cooperative societies and entities producing abroad. In achieving its objectives, the research relied on conducting a case study for the General Agricultural Cooperative Society of Potato Producers by applying SWOT analysis. Where the results of the quantitative SWOT analysis showed that the association has significant internal strengths, which encourages support, development and utilization of the association so that it does not turn into weaknesses that negatively affect the association’s performance. And then there are good external opportunities for the association, which encourages support for the association and take advantage of these opportunities to increase the association’s activity in the field of export, taking into account not to neglect it so that it does not turn into a threat that poses a danger to the association and its activities. Hence, the research recommends facilitating the General Assembly for Potato Producers to obtain lands in safe areas so that they can be exploited in expanding agriculture, examining the delta lands to discover safe lands to increase crop areas, and taking advantage of the advantages of Cooperation Law No. 122, which previously contributed to supporting the role of the association In production and export, by canceling the ministerial decisions that were issued to it, which limited its advantages and obstructed the course of the association. The necessity to raise the legal awareness of the members of the boards of directors of the associations in them regarding the texts related to the field of agricultural marketing in the cooperation law Keywords : Agricultural Trade Balance, General potato growers co-operative producers, SWOT Quantitative Analysis ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ


Estimating the Value of Investments and Imports for Achieving Food Security for Fish

Sahar Kamara, 2020

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Environment, Development and Sustainability, De-Springer.ogg, Netherlands, Vol.(22), No.(8), December 2020. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ We research current scenarios to estimate the value of the investments and imports needed to achieve different levels of food security for fish in Egypt. We use the strategic stock estimation equations, the food security coefficient, the distribution of Bernoulli, and the standard errors at 95% confidence. The results are as follows. The strategic stock of fish reached 376,350 tons. With local consumption of 1.71 million tons in 2015, the fish food Security coefficient was estimated at 0.22. The relative importance of the contribution of local production of fish security ranged from 14.05 to 20.95% at 95% confidence, while that of imports ranged from 1.15 to 8.05% at 95% confidence. Achieving full fish security requires an increase in production by 1.09 million tons to at most 1.62 million tons and an increase in fish imports from 88,760 tons to at most 621,350 tons, both at 95% confidence. The value of additional investments at a 10% discount rate to achieve full fish security ranged from at least 6.28 billion pounds to at most 9.35 billion pounds, while the value of the increase in fish imports ranged from at least 1.41 billion pounds to at least 9.85 billion pounds at 95% confidence. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Effect of Reducing the Rice Area on Farmers’ Income in the A.R.E.

Salah Abd El-Mohsen, Wael Azat El-Abed, Amin Eldokla, Mohammed Husein Khalifa, Radwan Ammar, Howida Hassan Mohamed, Rasha Ahmed Farag, Amal Eid Elseheme, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), April 2020. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Competitiveness of the Egyptian Onion in the Most important Foreign Markets

Hanaa Abd El latef, Isabil Zakhary, Wael Azat El-Abed, Amal Eid Elseheme, 2020

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________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC),ِ April 2020. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Study of the economic analysis of the value chain of fattening poultry in Gharbia Governorate

Hanaa Abd El latef, Wael Azat El-Abed, Salah Abd El-Mohsen, Amin Eldokla, Howida Hassan Mohamed, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of Economic Analysis for Agricultural Commodities, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), July 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Analysis for Production of Sugar Beet and Sugar Cane Crops in Egypt

Ahmed Shebl, 2020

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ • Mansoura Journal of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Mansoura University, Vol.(11), No.(11), Mansoura, Egypt, February 2020. ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ The research aimed primarily at econometric analysis of the changes in the most important factors that are supposed to affect the production of both sugar cane and sugar beet crops in Egypt. Among the most important results reached are: First: The sugar beet crop: - The compound by the current values farm price was characterized that it achieves a measure of stability, Where the instability coefficient was estimated during the period (2001-2017) about 6.45, while the instability coefficient of the cultivated area reached about 9.9, this led to a rise in the economic instability coefficientfor the production of sugar beet crop during the study period,it was about 9.25, the study also showed that the instability of the area planted with sugar beet is due to it about 98% of the economic instability to produce the beet crop, therefore, a 10% change in the instability factor of the cultivated area Lead to a change in the economic instability coefficient of the sugar beet crop production by about 11%, the results also showed a positive relationship between the area of the crop desired to be cultivated in the current year and each of the area of the crop in the previous year. Second: The sugar cane crop: - The instability coefficients were about 3.16, 0.4, 0.8, for each of the compound by the real values farm price, the cultivated area, and Feddan productivity respectively,which led to the economic stability for sugar cane production, which amounted to about 1.3, during the study period. The results indicated that the changes in the instability factors for the cultivated area and Feddan productivity, explain about 50% of the economic stability of the production of sugar cane, and a 10% change in these variables leads to a change in the economic stability of sugar cane production at about 2.3%, 5.4%, respectively, in the same direction and at about 7.7% for the total effect of the two mentioned variables. ________________________________________________________________________________________________


An Analytical Economic Study of Land Reclamation A Case Study of the "Bani Sweif Governorate"

Ali Mohamed Ahmed, Mahmoud Abd El Haleem, Essam Yousif, Hanan Mostafa, Amal Saleh, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Department of The Land and Water Economics Research, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), April 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


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