PhD Thesis      [Total: 452 ]

Analytical Study of The Impact of Virtual Water on the Egyptian Agricultural Balance of Trade

Nermeen Nasr, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, El Fayom University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Water scarcity is the main determinant of agricultural production in the Arab world in general and Egypt in particular now and in the future. Water needs have increased dramatically, with the fixed quantity of the main water resource in Egypt at 55.5 billion m3, represented by the Nile River, where the amount of water needs amounted to about 76.25 billion m3, with a deficit of about 20.75 billion m3. The problem of the study shows the increasing gap between the water supply and demand with the increase of population and the increase of water requirements, which leads to a reduction in per capita fresh water to about 846.38 m3 per capita, which is less than the level of water poverty estimated at 1000 m3 per capita. Which has led to the need to study the best ways to manage and use water more efficiently. The study aimed to analyze the impact of virtual water on the Egyptian agricultural trade balance, through several sub-objectives. The study included four main chapters, in addition to the introduction that includes a problem and objectives of the study, data sources and research method, beside to Arabic-language and English-language summary, Arabic and foreign references, abstract, recommendations, and appendices. The crops of the agricultural trade balance were divided into three categories according to their content of virtual water, which are high content crops, which contain more than 2000 m3/ton, and medium content crops, whose content ranges between 1000-2000 m3/ton, Crops of low content, which are less than 1000 m3/ton. Some indicators were used, such as: Gini-Hirschman Coefficient, and Water Intensity Indicator. The Path Analysis Model and Asymmetry and causality tests were used using by NonLinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) method, to measure the effect of the most important factors on both the amount of exports and imports, and the amount of virtual water exported and imported. Linear programming and goal programming were used to achieve optimum scenarios for both export structure, imports and trade balance, with a higher water use and better economic return. The study concluded with some suggested recommendations, then a summary of the most important results, and the references that used to serve the purpose of the study. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Economic Study to Produce The Most Important Grain Crops in Egypt

Maha Bastawy, 2019

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 2019. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The main objective of the study is taking shape in trying mostly yield of grain crop production through optimal use of available resources (water-Earth-capital) and the evolution of productivity indicators. The study also aims to study the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency rate of major grain crops, using measurements of economic efficiency for the highest return for wheat and rice. The four major sections of the study included plus references and appendices and Arabic-language summary and a summary in English, the first section benchmark review of previous studies and theoretical framework. While the second section the status quo for the economics of grain crops in Egypt through three chapters, the first chapter dealing with the production and consumption of cereal crops, the second and third chapter then addressed the current situation of wheat and rice through size and production and productivity and total production Examining the costs and net revenue and farm price for wheat and examine the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency ratio, average per capita consumption, and then the third section productivity indicators affecting the production of wheat and rice in three section, The first chapter deals with indicators of productivity of wheat at the provincial level, and geographic distribution of major wheat varieties in terms of cultivated area, as well as irrigation efficiency of wheat through his lesson the amount of water used to grow wheat, and the relative importance of the amount of water used in Wheat cultivation, chapter II indicators of productivity for rice and wheat but we have studied the geographical distribution of rice varieties in soil and short stay long stay in the soil, and also study the amount of water used for rice cultivation, Chapter III foreign trade of wheat, where import energy intake and geographical distribution of imports of wheat and rice export energy and geographical distribution of rice exports, and section four: take a sample field study through questionnaire for wheat and rice for estimating production functions and cost in eastern provinces and the Lake and Dakahliya, Kafr El-Sheikh to estimate efficiency of agricultural economic resources for the production of wheat and rice, and section Fifth : Measuring the economic efficiency of production of wheat and rice to each separately, by estimating the efficient use of available economic resources so as to rationalize the use of these resources, reduce production costs and increase production. Through the comparison between actual and optimal quantities used and the technical and economic efficiency which leads to more efficient use of resources and thus increase production and profits for farmers. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Economic Assessment of The Efficiency of Agricultural Mechanization in Some Strategic Agricultural Crops Egyptian

Aziza Hussien Sebetan, 2018

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2018. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Study of the Impacts of re-using the Agricultural Drainage Water and its Relationship with Sustainable Development in El-Dakahlia Governorate

Sameh Moursi, 2017

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 2017. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The study aimed to identify the economic and environmental impacts of the re-use of agricultural drainage water in different types of irrigation water as, fresh water, agricultural drainage water, and mixed water on the production of the study crops at country, as, wheat, rice, sugar beet, and cotton. Also measuring economic efficiency and technical efficiency for the production of these crops. The study also aimed to measuring the multi-dimensional poverty index and measuring the total effects of the irrigation water types on the level of poverty in the irrigation area as, (education- health-living standard) Economic, environmental and social problems and their relationship to sustainable development. The study included six parts. The introduction covered the research problem, the research objectives, the research method, and the data sources. The first part, Included two chapters: the first dealt theoretical framework and; the second chapter dealt with the reference review of some previous studies. The second part contained two chapters, the first; concerned with the water resources in Egypt, Dakahlia, its uses, problems, and development, while the second chapter dealt with the development of major crops in Egypt and Dakahlia Governorate. While included Part III, on the two chapters, concerned with the first chapter in a method to select a sample study. While interested in the second chapter to measure the marginal productivity of water and diagnosis problem of functions such as multicollinearity. As included Part IV two chapters, concerned with the first chapter economic analysis of costs function for area. While interested in the second chapter, estimate the cost functions for study crops. While the fifth part included two chapters, in mind the first chapter measuring and analyzing technical efficiency in the production of study crops used for three different types of irrigation water at, Dakahlia Governorate. As the second chapter concerned with analyzing and measuring multi-dimensional poverty and the factors affecting on farm families used to varying types of irrigation water and its relationship to sustainable development in Dakahlia Governorate. The sixth part, dealt with two chapters. The first chapter dealt with the concepts related to the environmental effects of re-use of agricultural drainage water in the irrigation area. The second chapter concerned the results of the field study on the environmental effects of re-use of agricultural drainage water in the study area. The study recommended some factors that would re-use agricultural drainage water, to trying to control the negative effects of this use on the environmental. The need to expand the re-use of agricultural drainage water as a non-traditional water resource. Minimum amount of drainage water flowing to the sea and lakes, which are not less than 8 billion cubic meters annually to preserve life Natural lakes and the salt balance of the Delta lands. Expanding the use of blended irrigation water instead of agricultural drainage water. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Analysis for The Most Important Hypotheses for Food And Energy Crisis In Egypt

Safaa Elwakeel, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The objectives of the study are: (1) to investigate the current food-security issue in Egypt, especially for the crops under study; (2) to examine the current and prospective energy problem in Egypt; (3) to inspect the past and ongoing food subsidization policies adopted in Egypt; and (4) to scrutinize the electricity and energy subsidization policies in Egypt. The study is confined to an introduction, in addition to five main chapters. The introduction includes the research problem, study objectives, and data sources. The study’s problem points to the presence of a food gap for a number of strategic crops in addition to the existence of a shortage in energy and petroleum products, especially for the last three years. The Government of Egypt has tried to diminish the adversebearings of this food gap and energy problems through adopting a number of subsidization policies. The final outcome of these policies is a burden on the Government’s budget. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


The Impact of Agricultural Finance on Agricultural Development in New Lands in the Arab Republic of Egypt

Khaled Abdelsalam Ahmed, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The problem of this study was identified in the suffering of the agricultural economic structure in the new lands from some economic problems, the most important of which is the small size of farm incomes, which is characterized by seasonality, and consequently the weakness of the savings capacity, and the lack of self-financing of most farmers, and then the problem of providing the necessary financing for agricultural development In the new lands, it is considered one of the most important problems that hinder the march of agricultural development in those areas. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the impact of agricultural financing on agricultural development in the new lands in the Arab Republic of Egypt, by shedding light on agricultural development in the new lands, highlighting the main axes of the agricultural financing policy in these lands, as well as the crop composition, and clarifying the value of production. Agricultural loans in the new lands, estimating the value of agricultural loans nationwide, analyzing the socio-economic characteristics of the study sample, in addition to trying to determine the most important factors affecting the request for agricultural loans in this sample, and estimating the economic indicators of the impact of agricultural loans on the most important crops grown in the study sample, from During the statistical analysis of the impact of agricultural loans on production costs, faddan productivity, and net faddan yield of the most important crops planted in the study sample, as well as clarifying the farmers ’dealings with the Development and Agricultural Credit Bank, and trying to enumerate and identify the most important problems facing farmers in the new lands, whether at the level of Republic, or at the level of the study sample regions. In order to achieve the aim of the study, two methods of descriptive and quantitative analysis have been used, represented in the use of the relative importance of the various social and economic variables, as well as the general temporal trend method to identify the extent of the development in agricultural loans, and the method of multi-stage regression analysis was used to identify the most important factors affecting On the request for agricultural loans in the new lands, in addition to estimating some economic indicators of the impact of agricultural loans on the most important crops planted in the sample of the study, using the method of analysis of variance, to identify the impact of agricultural loans on agricultural production costs, faddan productivity, and the net return per acre for the most important Crops grown in the new lands of the study sample in Noubaria district, Buhaira Governorate, during 2011. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Performance efficiency of the Agricultural development and credit banks in Egypt.

Mohamed Ahmed Ali, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Monufia University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ banks in Egypt The study aims at measuring the financial and economic efficiency of the bank for development and agricultural credit (BDAC) through applying a number of financial and economic indicators. In which help policy makers and government to develop the bank and improve its performance. The results showed that the ratio of banking safety for the BDAC decreased annually by about 1% during the period 1997-2010. Concerning the element of profitability, the study showed that the rate of return on assets for the BDAC was very low compared with commercial banks and estimated by about 0.15% during the same period. The results also showed that the liquidity ratio for BDAC increased annually by about 3%. Also, the spread of the bank is greater than needed, which consider costly. The components of agricultural credit policy were examined and explained that the bank has kept on providing short loans to all governorates. The study also showed a declining trend in recovery rates for loans in the BDAC during the period 2002-2011. The different types of loans, which provided by the BDAC has been discussed during the period 1997-2011. The results showed that the total value of loans at current prices increased significantly by about 421 million LE annually, while the total value of loans at fixed prices decreased by about 514 million LE annually. The results indicated that the ratio of the right of ownership on deposits of the BDAC decreased annually by about 2.1%, whereas it increased for each of Export Development Bank of Egypt and Housing and Development Bank. Studying the rate of risk capital investment indicated that the ratio of the risk for the BDAC is the highest compared with the other three banks, which are Export Development Bank, National Bank for Development, and Housing and Development Bank. The average rate of the right of ownership/total loans estimated of about 11.5% compared with 19.4%, 18.4%, and 14.92% for the pre-mentioned other three banks respectively. Also the results showed that the rate of property right/risky assets for the BDAC was the lowest compared with the three banks of comparison during the period of study. Concerning the efficiency of the BDAC from the prospective of customers, the study sample showed that about 54% of those who got investment loans have used those loans in the establishment of new projects. It also showed that about 30% of the investment loans were less than 10 thousand LE, whereas 56% of those were less than 20 thousand LE. The sample also showed that 52% of the farmers want to continuation of dealing with the BDAC in investment loans, whereas about 34% of the sample wants to dealing in agricultural loans. The sample showed that the main reason for the unwillingness of farmers in dealing with the BDAC could be summarized as follows: - The high price of interest (31% of the study sample). - The fines and inappropriate times for repayment of loans (13%). - Mismanagement (9%). - The complexity of the procedures (1%). The results of the sample also showed that the increase in the size of the agricultural holding leads to an increase in the use of the loan for its intended purpose. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


FAMILY SELECTION IN SUGARCANE POPULATIONS AS AFFECTED BY GENOTYPES X ENVIRONMENTS INTERACTION

Mahmoud Mohamed Ali Ebid, 2015

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ABSTRACT Mahmoud Hamdy Mohamed Ali Ebid: Family Selection in SugarCane Populations as Affected by Genotypes X Environments Interaction. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Sham University, 2015. The present investigation included two experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2011/12 to 2013/14) at three locations, i.e. Kom-Ombo Agricultaral Research Station, Aswan Governorate latitude 24° 15? N (L1), Mattana Agriculture Research Station, Luxor Governorate latitude 25o 36? N (L2) and Shandweel Agricultural Research Station, Sohag Governorate latitude 26o 33? N (L3). The objectives of this study are to select the most promising cane clones that could outyield the commercial check cultivar GT.54-9 through study the performance of five sugarcane populations consisted of 206 clones at Kom-Ombo, Mattana and Shandweel locations along with the commercial cultivar GT.54-9. Based on results obtained from the first experiment a total of sixteen clones were selected from the five populations. In the first experiment (base populations) it could be reported that the high broad sense heritability coupled with high genetic advance for single stalk weight, number of millable canes and Brix% indicates that clones number 2, 22 (population I); 8, 12, 16. 18 (population II); 4, 13 (population III); 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 32 (population IV); 4 and 31 (population V) were most greatly superior to the other clones compared with check variety. Based on the selected clones, it was suggested to advance clone No. 18 in population II for further selection stages at Shandweel as well as clone 13 in IV at Mattana, in addition to clones No. 2 and 22 in I and 13 in IV at Kom-Ombo, its had a high cane and sugar yields. Significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits were observed. Genotype × location (G×L) interactions were significant (p ? 0.01) for stalk height, stalk weight and cane yield. In the plant cane and 1st ratoon, high broad-sense heritability (h2) was detected for number of millable canes (0.96 and 0.93), single stalk weight (0.90 and 0.88), stalk diameter (0.80 and 0.86) and stalk height (0.82 and 0.79) respectively indicating that these traits could be easily selected. Highest expected genetic gains were recorded in stalk weight and number of millable canes. All traits had high to moderate genetic correlations with cane yield. On the average, genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations. The study suggests that evaluation of sugarcane clones in many locations as opposed to crop years would be satisfactory. In view of their high GCV, broad-sense heritability and expected genetic advance, a selection strategy based on single stalk weight and number of millable canes could lead to improvement in cane yield. Key Words: Sugarcane, Family selection, Populations, Clones, Locations, G x E interaction, Genetic advance, Broad sense heritability, Genotypic and phenotypic variances.


Training needs of Agricultural extension supervisors

Ahmed Abd El-motelab El-hsawy, 2015

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The study aimed at achieving the following goals: l- Identifying the personal and professional characteristics of the respondents from the agricultural supervisors and guiding workers. 2- Identifiying training needs, the applied and collective and rehabilitative needs for the respondents in the seven studied categories (Training - guidance (leadership), motivation, directing, coordination, censorship and Correction). 3- Identifying some of the bilateral relations between the personal and professional variables of the respondents and the former training pre-rnentioned needs. 4- Determining the proportion of the contribution of some of the independent variables studied in the interpretation of variation in the degrees of training requirements that have been mentioned above for the respondents in the seven studied areas or categories. 5- Identification of the views of the respondents in the degree of the presence of obstacles and problems (19) that limit and curb their effectiveness while performing their guidway duties and task. After selecting and identifying the research objectives, the hypotheses were formulated and put in zero images. The study has been launched in the middle and south delta region as an area and intentional sample to conduct this study. The number of the agricultural guiding supervisors reached 346 as guiding supervisors. Data have been gathered by a personal interview form during July & august 2012. Throughout a proportion out of 100 % of the intentional sample. Data were coded, admitted and discharged into the computer. Data have been also analyzed by using the stastical programmer [spss] . Duplicates were also used and the percentage and the arithmetic mean and the weighted data). The simple correlation analysis was also used [person] .The linear regression analysis was u ed as well whether ( full model or the steno typist one to analyse ( Data) and the identification of the proportion of the contribution of the independent variables in interpreting the collective contras in the variables [ the dependent variable] . Test [ F ] and test [ T ] were ab) used to judge the statistical SIgnificance of the relations: the most important reults were as follows: 1- 77.5% of the total number of the respondents were of [ guide specialists sector] while 47,1 % of the total number of respondents were from Al - monomial Governorate. 69,08 % of the total number of the respondents are adults or ( elder ones ). 69,4% of the respondents are brought up in villages [ rurals]. 70,2% of the respondents have got agricultural bachelor.


A Study of Environmental Behavior for rural youth in some villages at kafer El- sheikh Governorate

Aza El-Demery, 2015

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The issues of the pollution of the natural resources of the environment as a result of the effect depending on the wrong social behavior is the most dangerous things, the environment exposed to a large number of problems between wasting, neglecting and polluting components, that because human working towards progress and rush of human without prudence to depleting a lot of the natural resources. Since the environmental behavior is the main factor that determines the method of how to deal with the environment to exploit its resources, as well as it is the most important factors to preserve and protect the environment, so, the adjusting of the rural behavior to be positive in dealing with natural resources will have a significant impact on the preservation of these resources and protection it from pollution and attrition, and the belief in the role played by the youths in the development process and the preservation of environmental resources from pollution; therefore, the research problem started from several questions, they are: What are the personal characteristics of the respondents? What is the level of the environmental behavior of rural youth? What are the factors that stand behind it? What is the work that affects on the amendment of the negative behaviors towards the environment to positive behaviors? And how can raise of the level of ! environmental awareness of youth? What is the positive contribution due in the preservation of the environment from pollution? The objective of the study: Consistence with the research problem it has been possible to formulate the following objectives: 1- To identify some personal characteristics of the respondents from the rural youth. 2- To identify the level of the environmental behavior of the respondents from the rural youth in the field of soil, water, air in the villages studied.


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