PhD Thesis      [Total: 416 ]

Chemical and biological evaluation of deterpenated orange and mandarin oils

Rushdy Ahmed, 2015


Orange (Citrus sinensis) and mandarin (Citrus reteculata) peels were used to extract their essential oils by cold pressing method. The chemical composition of both oils were identified and determined by GC/MS. Limonene (89.65%) in orange and (65.57%) in mandarin, is a main component of monoterpenes, followed by γ-terpienene (23.07%) in mandarin. Octanal (1.47%) in orange oil and linalool (1.5%) in mandarin oil are abundant oxygenated component determined. Deterpenation of both oils was applied using three different techniques to remove hydrocarbon monoterpenes and thus, increased oxygenated components, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and oxides relatively. Preparative silica gel adsorption chromatography at two ratios (1:7.5 and 1:15 oil to silica) was used for removing terpenes from orange and mandarin oils. The higher level of oxygenated components in deterpenated oil, the lower percentage of oil recovery. Concentration by controlled vacuum distillation techniques, 10 mm Hg and 62 ºC, was applied to produce folded orange oils (5F.O.O and 10F.O.O) and folded mandarin oil (5F.M.O).The higher fold number the lower the monoterpenes content. Limonene recorded 67.88% in (10F.O.O) and 52.95% in (5F.M.O). γ–terpinene as monoterpene did not affect by distillation of mandarin oil. Alcohols increased and recorded 15.67% while, aldehydes represented 10.67% in ten fold orange oils. The main esters as methyl N-methyl anthranilate and geranyl acetate increased in (5F.M.O) than that found in original mandarin oil. The deterpenation of orange oil by diluted ethyl alcohol at 70% (1:5) and 80% (1:5) could be considered as the most effective concentration in comparison with the other concentrates for obtaining deterpenated oils containing the highest amount of aroma oxygenated compounds. Stored folded oils characterized by decrement in limonene, lost in aldehyde aroma components and increased in oxidation products such as cis-p-mentha 2,1 dienol and trans carveol. Losing limonene during storage in original oils led to increase in specific gravity, refractive index, evaporation residue and acid value. The improvement of antioxidant capacity of concentrates (5F.O.O, 10F.O.O and 5F.M.O) and deterpenated fractions (F3 and F5) than their original oils were related with increasing minor components by deterpenation such as carvacrol, geraniol, α-terpineol and linalool or related with other terpene component γ-terpenene in (5F.M.O). Deterpenated and concenterated orange oils were more effective on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus than original oils because the increment of oxygenated monoterpenes by deterpenation as well as synergistic interaction of other constituents. The efficiency of folded oils in hypocholestrolimic rats did not affected by decreasing of limonene by deterpenation. The original and folded oils were used as a flavoring agent in the formulation of chewing gum.

Biochemical and molecular bases of resistance mechanism in cowpea aphid AphisCraccivora (Koch) to Pirimicarb and Thiamethoxam

Eman Foad, 2015


The Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch), is considered a serious insect attacking several crops. Aphis craccivora has developed resistance to various insecticides. Resistance monitoring in Dakahlia, Qalubia and Bani-Suef field strains were studied. Results showed that the field strain from Dakahlia field strain was resistant to the tested organophosphates, carbamates and neonicotinoids. However, the Bani-Suef field strain exhibited lower levels of resistance. Esterase activity in the three field strains was generally high as the activity ratio ranged between 4.3-7.8, whereas, the activity of both glutathione -s- transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidases (MFO) were moderate in Qalubia and Dakahlia field strains. Therefore, biochemical and molecular studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance in the cowpea aphid to primicarb and thiamethoxam. The thiamethoxam resistant strain showed 48-fold resistance after selection pressure with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. The strain exhibited cross resistance to pirimicarb and carbosulfan and vigor tolerance to malathion and acetamiprid. DEF increased thiamethoxam toxicity to the thiamethoxam resistant strain (ThR) 5.58 times. Biochemical assays revealed that carboxylesterase (CbE) activity was 30 times higher in the ThR strain. AChE activity was 3.68 times higher in R-strain compared to S-strain. Pirimicarb resistant strain showed 47-fold resistance after selection pressure for 12 generations. This strain also exhibited remarkable cross-resistance to carbosulfan, malathion, chlorpyrifos methyl and thiamethoxam. Vigor tolerance levels to fenitrothion and acetamiprid were also found. DEF was a remarkable synergist which showed significant CbE activity. PBO had a synergistic effect by inhibiting MFO activity, and GST had a little role in conferring resistance in PR-strain. AChE enzyme activity in pirimicarb resistant strain (PR) was 2.77-fold compared to the susceptible strain. The I50 ratios of PR-strain to S-strain were 9.11 and 12.4-fold as determined by eserine and pirimicarb, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that the transcription level of Ace2 mRNA in PR-strain was 3.44 fold higher than that in susceptible stain. Three Site-directed mutagenesis are presented G60A, S72R and Q123P in Real-time PCR products. This clarifies that mechanism of resistance in PR-strain referred to metabolic and insensitivity of AChE.

Training needs of Agricultural extension supervisors

Ahmed Abd El-motelab El-hsawy, 2015


The study aimed at achieving the following goals: l- Identifying the personal and professional characteristics of the respondents from the agricultural supervisors and guiding workers. 2- Identifiying training needs, the applied and collective and rehabilitative needs for the respondents in the seven studied categories (Training - guidance (leadership), motivation, directing, coordination, censorship and Correction). 3- Identifying some of the bilateral relations between the personal and professional variables of the respondents and the former training pre-rnentioned needs. 4- Determining the proportion of the contribution of some of the independent variables studied in the interpretation of variation in the degrees of training requirements that have been mentioned above for the respondents in the seven studied areas or categories. 5- Identification of the views of the respondents in the degree of the presence of obstacles and problems (19) that limit and curb their effectiveness while performing their guidway duties and task. After selecting and identifying the research objectives, the hypotheses were formulated and put in zero images. The study has been launched in the middle and south delta region as an area and intentional sample to conduct this study. The number of the agricultural guiding supervisors reached 346 as guiding supervisors. Data have been gathered by a personal interview form during July & august 2012. Throughout a proportion out of 100 % of the intentional sample. Data were coded, admitted and discharged into the computer. Data have been also analyzed by using the stastical programmer [spss] . Duplicates were also used and the percentage and the arithmetic mean and the weighted data). The simple correlation analysis was also used [person] .The linear regression analysis was u ed as well whether ( full model or the steno typist one to analyse ( Data) and the identification of the proportion of the contribution of the independent variables in interpreting the collective contras in the variables [ the dependent variable] . Test [ F ] and test [ T ] were ab) used to judge the statistical SIgnificance of the relations: the most important reults were as follows: 1- 77.5% of the total number of the respondents were of [ guide specialists sector] while 47,1 % of the total number of respondents were from Al - monomial Governorate. 69,08 % of the total number of the respondents are adults or ( elder ones ). 69,4% of the respondents are brought up in villages [ rurals]. 70,2% of the respondents have got agricultural bachelor.

A Study of Environmental Behavior for rural youth in some villages at kafer El- sheikh Governorate

Aza El-Demery, 2015


The issues of the pollution of the natural resources of the environment as a result of the effect depending on the wrong social behavior is the most dangerous things, the environment exposed to a large number of problems between wasting, neglecting and polluting components, that because human working towards progress and rush of human without prudence to depleting a lot of the natural resources. Since the environmental behavior is the main factor that determines the method of how to deal with the environment to exploit its resources, as well as it is the most important factors to preserve and protect the environment, so, the adjusting of the rural behavior to be positive in dealing with natural resources will have a significant impact on the preservation of these resources and protection it from pollution and attrition, and the belief in the role played by the youths in the development process and the preservation of environmental resources from pollution; therefore, the research problem started from several questions, they are: What are the personal characteristics of the respondents? What is the level of the environmental behavior of rural youth? What are the factors that stand behind it? What is the work that affects on the amendment of the negative behaviors towards the environment to positive behaviors? And how can raise of the level of ! environmental awareness of youth? What is the positive contribution due in the preservation of the environment from pollution? The objective of the study: Consistence with the research problem it has been possible to formulate the following objectives: 1- To identify some personal characteristics of the respondents from the rural youth. 2- To identify the level of the environmental behavior of the respondents from the rural youth in the field of soil, water, air in the villages studied.


Hanan Ali El-tahawea, 2015


This study aims mainly to identify the evaluation of role of rural and agricultural development communication network (RADCON) in giving awareness to rural women in fields of rural development in some villages of El-Behera govemorate. More specifically, the objectives of the current study are to: 1- Recognize some characteristics of the respondents. 2- Evaluate the role of rural and agricultural development communication network (RADCON) about the knowledge benefit for the respondents in the included fields of the network systems. 3- Evaluate the role of rural and agricultural development communication network (RADCON) about the application benefit for the respondents in the included fields of the network systems. 4- Examine the correlations and the influential relation between the independent variables and the level of knowledge and application benefit for the respondents in the included fields of the network systems as a dependent variable. 5- Recognize the respondents problems and how to solve them according to their points of view. A questionnaire based on personal interview of 160 respondents which represent the sample of the respondents that communicate with ( RADCON ) two times and more monthly at the study region in El. Behera govemorate.

A Social Study of political behavior for the Rural youth a field study in two villages at Kafr EI-Shiekh Governance

walaa Abdel Aziz shaaban, 2015


The youth are the future of the promising nation , they are the future leaders and they are the men who located upon themselves the evelopment of society in all political, conomic, social and cultural fields, and on their hands, its goals and its ambitions be achieve in sophisticated world full with quick shifts and varying challenges, this is depending on what to say to the youths in care of developing their leadership skills and training them in industry and to take decision at the right time. The political behavior is the basic of democratic act, and as is the face reflects the democratic process in their positive and negative, he is influential and measure of success or to be hinder of this process, the low level of political behavior of the youths would prevent achieved, so ,it must study the factors that will lead to an increase in knowledge and attitudes and political practices of the rural youths, also, the obstacles that obstacle the exercise of political behavior with its aspects until it can be removed and avoided even be increasing the level of political participation as political behavior. Consistent with the problem of the study, this study aimed mainly to study the political behavior of rural youths, through achieving the following sub-objectives: 1- To identify the personal, social and economic haracteristics of rural youths. 2 - To identify the level of political behavior of the rural ouths. 3 - To identify the associated variables with degree of political behavior of the rural Youths. 4 - To identify the determined factors and the degree of the relative contribution of each of them in the interpretation of the variation in the degree of political behavior of the rural youths.


Mahmoud Mohamed Ali Ebid, 2015


ABSTRACT Mahmoud Hamdy Mohamed Ali Ebid: Family Selection in SugarCane Populations as Affected by Genotypes X Environments Interaction. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Sham University, 2015. The present investigation included two experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2011/12 to 2013/14) at three locations, i.e. Kom-Ombo Agricultaral Research Station, Aswan Governorate latitude 24° 15? N (L1), Mattana Agriculture Research Station, Luxor Governorate latitude 25o 36? N (L2) and Shandweel Agricultural Research Station, Sohag Governorate latitude 26o 33? N (L3). The objectives of this study are to select the most promising cane clones that could outyield the commercial check cultivar GT.54-9 through study the performance of five sugarcane populations consisted of 206 clones at Kom-Ombo, Mattana and Shandweel locations along with the commercial cultivar GT.54-9. Based on results obtained from the first experiment a total of sixteen clones were selected from the five populations. In the first experiment (base populations) it could be reported that the high broad sense heritability coupled with high genetic advance for single stalk weight, number of millable canes and Brix% indicates that clones number 2, 22 (population I); 8, 12, 16. 18 (population II); 4, 13 (population III); 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 32 (population IV); 4 and 31 (population V) were most greatly superior to the other clones compared with check variety. Based on the selected clones, it was suggested to advance clone No. 18 in population II for further selection stages at Shandweel as well as clone 13 in IV at Mattana, in addition to clones No. 2 and 22 in I and 13 in IV at Kom-Ombo, its had a high cane and sugar yields. Significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits were observed. Genotype × location (G×L) interactions were significant (p ? 0.01) for stalk height, stalk weight and cane yield. In the plant cane and 1st ratoon, high broad-sense heritability (h2) was detected for number of millable canes (0.96 and 0.93), single stalk weight (0.90 and 0.88), stalk diameter (0.80 and 0.86) and stalk height (0.82 and 0.79) respectively indicating that these traits could be easily selected. Highest expected genetic gains were recorded in stalk weight and number of millable canes. All traits had high to moderate genetic correlations with cane yield. On the average, genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations. The study suggests that evaluation of sugarcane clones in many locations as opposed to crop years would be satisfactory. In view of their high GCV, broad-sense heritability and expected genetic advance, a selection strategy based on single stalk weight and number of millable canes could lead to improvement in cane yield. Key Words: Sugarcane, Family selection, Populations, Clones, Locations, G x E interaction, Genetic advance, Broad sense heritability, Genotypic and phenotypic variances.

Some variables related to the degree of benefit of small Enterprises 'owners funded by the Social Fund For Development' in some villages of Shark Governorate

Amina Slim El-shahat, 2014


The main objectives of this study were to identify the personal, social and economic characteristics of the Owners of Small Projects (oSPs) funded by the Social Development Fund (SDF), to investigate the degree of OSps' total social and economic benefits of these Enterprises and to recognize the relationships between these degrees and each of the following independent variables, and to identify the problems encounter them of villages studied To achieve these objectives, field study was conducted in Sharkia Governorate , has reached the study sample of 143 respondents comprehensive study, data were collected against using personal questionnaire with a young entrepreneur who works in the field of animal production. And use software statistic package (SPSS) to analyze data as it used arithmetic means and frequencies and percentages, and Pearson Simple correlation coefficient, and chi-square The most important results of the study could be summarized as follows: less than half of the respondents by 45.5 % of the total respondents fall in the age group of young people (23 - less than 38 years old) an age group most active in the work and production, and that nearly half of respondents, 42 percent live in families small size (2-5 individuals), that more than half of the respondents are married they have accounted for 62.2 %, the tribe is more than three -quarters of the respondents 87.4 % who did not receive training in the field of small projects, and also turned out to be 39% the number of respondents have a small volume of the number of children educated sons and fall in the category (2 Born - or less ), and that less than five of them increased by 16.1 % degree of benefit from the small college is high and they tall in the category (52-66), and nearly than half of the respondents 48.9 % overall benefit of small medium enterprises ( 37-51) and also about a third of whom 35% (22-36) The total benefit of small projects is low. The results showed that there is a significant correlation between the degree of making full use of the small Enterprises owners and between each of the independent variables related to: the acquisition of agricultural land, and income from the project, and the project's capital, the value of the loan from the Fund, and the duration of the project, the degree of exposure to sources public information, the degree of exposure to sources of information about the project, the degree of satisfaction with the project. And inversely with the age of the respondent, except for variables such as income from the original work and the degree of urban communication, where it was not significant The relationship also was significant with variables in discrete following: the number of children school age, and number of children educated children, and the existing management of the project small , and get training in small Enterprises, and participate in development projects other village, and Formal social participation and Informal social participation, in while the relationship was not significant with the educational status, marital status, household size, and type of work, ownership of the project, 'the ability pay, the case of the continuation of the project, the project type labor That set the organizational and administrative problems came in the first rank among the group : problems facing small enterprises Followed in order of funding problems and costs, then Iabor, marketing, and operating requirements, and finally the problem of skills and experience.

Role of Some Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of Rural Family in Giza Governorate

Ahmed Hassan hamouda, 2014


This study aimed to identify the respondents' knowledge degree concerning the activities of the local community development, legitimate, and charities organizations (ORGs), and their opinion on the performance degree of these activities as well as their benefit degree from these activities, as the most important independent variables which are related to the knowledge degree, benefit from the activities of the three studied orgs., and the obstacles which face these organizations (ORGs), and all respondents suggestions to reduce them. The study was conducted in three districts of Giza governorate. Two types of samples for the study were chosen (the heads of rural household (HRH), and the members of the directors boards of the organizations studied (MDB). 384 the heads of rural household (HRH), and 69 members of the directors boards (MDB) of the studied organizations (ORGs) were chosen randomly. A questioner was designed, tested, and collected through Jan. to March 2012. The study used frequency, percentages, simple correlation coefficient, and chi square test to analyse of the data.


Rania Mahmoud Abd El wahab, 2014


Sunflower oil crop is from promising oil crops to fill the oily gap and achieve self-sufficiency as its seeds contain about 60 % oil and the protein ratio in the seed is between 44 - 48 %. Its importance as an oil crop has increased in the recent years because it could be planted in most types of newly reclaimed land as well as the land that has proportion of salinity up to 3000 ppm with good drainage. Also, sunflower can be planted three times during the year and can be inter-cropped on the other crops such as tomatoes. The most important results indicated that the important factors affecting the consumed quantity from sunflower oil are the amount of production and per capita income. It is from the equation also the two mentioned factors affect the consumed amount of sunflower oil by about 76%. Also, the volume of feddan production of sunflower which minimizes production costs to the lowest level is estimated by 1109 kg as shown by the study sample and nobody in the sample (60 farmer) his production exceeds this size which exceeds the productivity average of 814.77 kg by 294.23 kg. The results also showed that the optimal rate to add a nitrogen fertilizer is 169.50 kg while the farmers in the study sample use about 90 kg nitrogen/fed and this is less than optimal rate by about 79.5 kg.