PhD Thesis      [Total: 486 ]

Analytical Study of The Impact of Virtual Water on the Egyptian Agricultural Balance of Trade

Nermeen Nasr, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, El Fayom University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Water scarcity is the main determinant of agricultural production in the Arab world in general and Egypt in particular now and in the future. Water needs have increased dramatically, with the fixed quantity of the main water resource in Egypt at 55.5 billion m3, represented by the Nile River, where the amount of water needs amounted to about 76.25 billion m3, with a deficit of about 20.75 billion m3. The problem of the study shows the increasing gap between the water supply and demand with the increase of population and the increase of water requirements, which leads to a reduction in per capita fresh water to about 846.38 m3 per capita, which is less than the level of water poverty estimated at 1000 m3 per capita. Which has led to the need to study the best ways to manage and use water more efficiently. The study aimed to analyze the impact of virtual water on the Egyptian agricultural trade balance, through several sub-objectives. The study included four main chapters, in addition to the introduction that includes a problem and objectives of the study, data sources and research method, beside to Arabic-language and English-language summary, Arabic and foreign references, abstract, recommendations, and appendices. The crops of the agricultural trade balance were divided into three categories according to their content of virtual water, which are high content crops, which contain more than 2000 m3/ton, and medium content crops, whose content ranges between 1000-2000 m3/ton, Crops of low content, which are less than 1000 m3/ton. Some indicators were used, such as: Gini-Hirschman Coefficient, and Water Intensity Indicator. The Path Analysis Model and Asymmetry and causality tests were used using by NonLinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) method, to measure the effect of the most important factors on both the amount of exports and imports, and the amount of virtual water exported and imported. Linear programming and goal programming were used to achieve optimum scenarios for both export structure, imports and trade balance, with a higher water use and better economic return. The study concluded with some suggested recommendations, then a summary of the most important results, and the references that used to serve the purpose of the study. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Analysis of The Efficiency of The Performance of Wholesale Markets for The Trade of Vegetables and Fruits in Egypt

Amr Elshafay, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The problem of the study is that there are big marketing differences between the prices that the product gets against production costs and what the consumer pays for the same product when purchasing it. In light of the research problem, a brief indication of the objectives of this thesis can be indicated: Evolution of quantities and prices of the most important vegetable and fruit crops in the Nozha market during the period (2009-2018) Seasonal study of crop prices under study in Al-Nuzha Market during the period (2009-2018) By studying the productive and economic indicators of the study crops in the sample of farmers in the Nubaria region for the agricultural season (2017/2018), it was found that the profits of the pound spent for orange 1.6, grapes 2.5, tomatoes 2.1, and potatoes 2.1 Calculating the profitability of the retailer from the marketing paths of the study sample crops for the same season, it was found to be about 608 pounds / ton for oranges, 682 for grapes, 277 for tomatoes, 295 for potatoes. And by studying the relative importance of the marketing problems of the study crops according to the opinions of marketers in the study sample, it was found that with regard to oranges, the problem of the lack of trained and sorting labor was the biggest problem facing producers by 44%, and for grapes and tomatoes, the problem of increasing collection costs by 76%, 82% for each Of them, for potatoes, the problem of lack of market information was 52% of the opinions of the producers As for the relative importance of the marketing problems of the study crops according to the opinions of wholesalers, the problem of the farmer's lack of interest in sorting and grading operations and the lack of market information was the biggest problem facing merchants by 44%, and for grapes the problem of the lack of marketing structure in the local markets was 44%, and for tomatoes and potatoes it was The high prices of packages and the delay in sales operations are the biggest problems facing wholesalers With regard to the relative importance of marketing problems according to the opinions of retailers for the most important horticultural crops of the study sample, it was found that for oranges, grapes and potatoes, the problem of monopoly of some traders and brokers was the biggest problem facing retailers by 62%, and for tomatoes, the problem of farmer's lack of interest in sorting and grading operations was the biggest problem with 46% of retailers' opinions. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


The Economics of Production and Marketing of Non – Traditional Diets in Egypt

Mohamed Hassan El Sheikh, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Banha University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The study also shows the role of unconventional fodder in increasing red meat production on the one hand and the use of waste and recycling it to protect the environment from pollution on the other hand, so this study is necessary to demonstrate the economic importance of unconventional fodder in the Arab Republic of Egypt and its role in enriching the economic development of livestock in Egypt. The problem of the study is the inability of the productive capacity of the feed resources of farm animals in Egyptian agriculture to cover the animal needs of these resources. This deficit in food for ruminant animals is estimated at about 4.2 million tons of digested foodstuffs. Feeds represent the largest aspect of the cost of animal production in Egypt to meet the needs of The increased demand for it as a result of the increase in population and the increase in the standard of living on the one hand and the increase in healthy food awareness on the other hand despite the increase in the quantities produced from it especially in light of the decline in per capita share from about 11 kg / year in 2000 to about 9 kg / year in 2017, With a permanent gap in the production of red meat amounted to about -618,000 tons, which led to an increased dependence on food imports of animal products in general and red meat products from 1.1 billion pounds in 2003 to about 25 billion pounds in 2017, especially after the liberalization of the exchange rate To meet the necessary needs, which has resulted in an increase in the level of red meat prices that is not commensurate with the income levels, which constitutes an additional burden on the family budget, especially the portion allocated for spending on red meat in Egypt, This is in addition to the reluctance of many producers to work in the field of animal husbandry for several reasons, including the high prices of fodder and workers ’wages, with a deficit in the quantities of those fodder, as the size of the animal feed gap reached about 12.8 million tons of plant feed in the same year, and the severity of this problem increases Due to the shortage of animal feed materials in Egypt, in addition to the waste in agricultural by-products and by-products of some field crops, which are disposed of in negative ways, Thus, these products are treated as a burden that must be disposed of and not an important economic and environmental resource. Therefore, full use of them should be made through the optimum exploitation and recycling in the unconventional feed industry, especially with the continuous increase in the production of these wastes with a gap and deficit in the quantities of feed Animal. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Study for Production and Marketing of Wheat in Egypt (A Case Study in Sharkia Governorate)

Seham Salah Aldeen Mostafa, 2019

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, El zaqaziq University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Food Structure Changes and its Effects on Poverty in Egypt

Ali Alsaid Abosalem, 2019

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 2019. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Food Structure Changes and its Effects on Poverty in Egypt, the problem of study was the case of changes in prices and consequent change in real value of entry. It also affected the change in the structure of consumption; The study included five chapter dealing with the first entrance of study, and the current situation and the future perception of food consumption in Egypt for the various food groups and the fourth. The current situation and the future perception of the main nutrients for the individual in Egypt and fifth changes in structure of food expenditure and poverty in Egypt, recommended the need to reduce the quantities of food energy, where the average per capita of about 4060.65 calories/day, which is higher than the recommended global average, which is for males aged 25 to 50 years about 2900 calories/day and for females the same age about 2,200 calories/ day, In addition, the importance of in-kind remittances in reducing the level of food poverty is needed. Those whose incomes are less than 14,000 LE are highly dependent on these transfers a direct impact on poverty. The importance of reducing agricultural imports has a negative impact on food poverty in long term. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FLAXSEED IN PRODUCTION OF SOME FUNCTIONAL FOODS.

Reham Abd Elsalam, 2019

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the physical, functional, chemical properties, phytochemical profiles as well as antioxidant and anticancer activities of different flaxseed flours i.e. full fat flaxseed flour (FFF), roasted full fat flaxseed flour (RFFF), defatted flaxseed flour (DFF) and roasted defatted flaxseed flour (RDFF). The characterization of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) from defatted flaxseed was studied. The incorporation of FPI into pasta (at 2.5, 5 and 7% of wheat flour) was assessed relative to pasta control (100% wheat flour). Increasing the percentage of FPI up to 7.5% decreased the overall acceptability scores compared with other pasta samples. The quality and technological characteristics of the flaxseed crackers as partially flour substitution and flaxseed brownies as partially shortening substitution (10, 20 and 30% substitution level) were also evaluated. Results revealed that flaxseed flours especially RFFF and RDFF have a good nutritional and functional profiles. Roasting process was found to be an effective method for reducing anti-nutrients content such as (phytic acid, cyanogenic glycoside and trypsin inhibitors) and improved protein digestability. Results showed that RDFF had significantly the highest content of phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect of lignans ethanolic extracts from defatted and roasted defatted flaxseed on colon carcinoma cell line (HCT) and breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) increased as the extract concentration increased. The RDFF had strong anticancer activity toward two tested cell lines (MCF-7 and HCT) with IC50 value (29.0 and 31.4 µg/ml, respectively). Substitution with RDFF increased significantly the content of protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of the crackers relative to control. The microbial load obtained of produced flaxseed were under the acceptable limits for a period of 3 months from the date of manufacture. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of flaxseed crackers tended to increase significantly with increasing the addition level of flaxseed and decreased with increasing storage period at ambient temperature (25±5°C) when compared to control sample. Overall acceptability of fat-replaced brownies samples was decreased by increasing level substitution with RFFF relative to control. Results indicated that linolenic acid percentage (omega-3) was increased via increasing flaxseed level of brownies samples. The obtained microbial load of produced brownies was in acceptable value range without any adverse effect on the qualities of the brownies for a storage period up to 3 weeks at room temperature (25±5°C). Concerning fat quality parameters, it could be noticed that peroxide value increased gradually up to the end of the storage period in all brownies samples. In addition, mean score values for thiobarbituric acid (TBA) showed gradually increased in values for both control and flaxseed brownies samples with increasing storage period up to 3 weeks. TBA values increased with shortening substitution level was increased and the increase was considerably higher in brownies prepared with 30 % RFFF of shortening substitution.


BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FLAXSEED IN PRODUCTION OF SOME FUNCTIONAL FOODS

Reham Abd Elsalam, 2019

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the physical, functional, chemical properties, phytochemical profiles as well as antioxidant and anticancer activities of different flaxseed flours i.e. full fat flaxseed flour (FFF), roasted full fat flaxseed flour (RFFF), defatted flaxseed flour (DFF) and roasted defatted flaxseed flour (RDFF). The characterization of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) from defatted flaxseed was studied. The incorporation of FPI into pasta (at 2.5, 5 and 7% of wheat flour) was assessed relative to pasta control (100% wheat flour). Increasing the percentage of FPI up to 7.5% decreased the overall acceptability scores compared with other pasta samples. The quality and technological characteristics of the flaxseed crackers as partially flour substitution and flaxseed brownies as partially shortening substitution (10, 20 and 30% substitution level) were also evaluated. Results revealed that flaxseed flours especially RFFF and RDFF have a good nutritional and functional profiles. Roasting process was found to be an effective method for reducing anti-nutrients content such as (phytic acid, cyanogenic glycoside and trypsin inhibitors) and improved protein digestability. Results showed that RDFF had significantly the highest content of phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect of lignans ethanolic extracts from defatted and roasted defatted flaxseed on colon carcinoma cell line (HCT) and breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) increased as the extract concentration increased. The RDFF had strong anticancer activity toward two tested cell lines (MCF-7 and HCT) with IC50 value (29.0 and 31.4 µg/ml, respectively). Substitution with RDFF increased significantly the content of protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of the crackers relative to control. The microbial load obtained of produced flaxseed were under the acceptable limits for a period of 3 months from the date of manufacture. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of flaxseed crackers tended to increase significantly with increasing the addition level of flaxseed and decreased with increasing storage period at ambient temperature (25±5°C) when compared to control sample. Overall acceptability of fat-replaced brownies samples was decreased by increasing level substitution with RFFF relative to control. Results indicated that linolenic acid percentage (omega-3) was increased via increasing flaxseed level of brownies samples. The obtained microbial load of produced brownies was in acceptable value range without any adverse effect on the qualities of the brownies for a storage period up to 3 weeks at room temperature (25±5°C). Concerning fat quality parameters, it could be noticed that peroxide value increased gradually up to the end of the storage period in all brownies samples. In addition, mean score values for thiobarbituric acid (TBA) showed gradually increased in values for both control and flaxseed brownies samples with increasing storage period up to 3 weeks. TBA values increased with shortening substitution level was increased and the increase was considerably higher in brownies prepared with 30 % RFFF of shortening substitution.


Economic Study to Produce The Most Important Grain Crops in Egypt

Maha Bastawy, 2019

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 2019. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The main objective of the study is taking shape in trying mostly yield of grain crop production through optimal use of available resources (water-Earth-capital) and the evolution of productivity indicators. The study also aims to study the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency rate of major grain crops, using measurements of economic efficiency for the highest return for wheat and rice. The four major sections of the study included plus references and appendices and Arabic-language summary and a summary in English, the first section benchmark review of previous studies and theoretical framework. While the second section the status quo for the economics of grain crops in Egypt through three chapters, the first chapter dealing with the production and consumption of cereal crops, the second and third chapter then addressed the current situation of wheat and rice through size and production and productivity and total production Examining the costs and net revenue and farm price for wheat and examine the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency ratio, average per capita consumption, and then the third section productivity indicators affecting the production of wheat and rice in three section, The first chapter deals with indicators of productivity of wheat at the provincial level, and geographic distribution of major wheat varieties in terms of cultivated area, as well as irrigation efficiency of wheat through his lesson the amount of water used to grow wheat, and the relative importance of the amount of water used in Wheat cultivation, chapter II indicators of productivity for rice and wheat but we have studied the geographical distribution of rice varieties in soil and short stay long stay in the soil, and also study the amount of water used for rice cultivation, Chapter III foreign trade of wheat, where import energy intake and geographical distribution of imports of wheat and rice export energy and geographical distribution of rice exports, and section four: take a sample field study through questionnaire for wheat and rice for estimating production functions and cost in eastern provinces and the Lake and Dakahliya, Kafr El-Sheikh to estimate efficiency of agricultural economic resources for the production of wheat and rice, and section Fifth : Measuring the economic efficiency of production of wheat and rice to each separately, by estimating the efficient use of available economic resources so as to rationalize the use of these resources, reduce production costs and increase production. Through the comparison between actual and optimal quantities used and the technical and economic efficiency which leads to more efficient use of resources and thus increase production and profits for farmers. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Economic Assessment of The Efficiency of Agricultural Mechanization in Some Strategic Agricultural Crops Egyptian

Aziza Hussien Sebetan, 2018

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2018. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Econometric Study for Milk Production Manufacture and its Relationship with Sustainability of Dairy Industry in El-Behiera governorate

Mohamed Abd Elhafeez, 2018

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, 2018. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Livestock income represents 37.5% of the total agricultural income in 2015. In the light of the research problem, a summary of the objectives of this thesis can be summarized: 1. Measuring the technical and economic efficiency of both traditional producers and factories using both the parametric and non-parametric models. 2 - Analysis of the factors affecting the technical efficiency and its relationship with the sizes of the farms capacity. 3. Estimation of cost functions for traditional dairy farms. 4. Use SWOT analysis to study all weaknese, threats, strengths and opportunities for this sector. 5. Propose a general framework for a model for achieving sustainable development in the dairy sector The study computed the milk amulet which satisfy the maximum profit according to cubit cost function the singes and the significance of its parameters and compatelile with the economic and statistical logics. According to the result of parametric and nonparametric models the main result are: 1. The technical efficiency of cow breeders was about 0.619, while the allocation efficiency averages were 0.85, and the economic efficiency averages were 0.522. The technical efficiency of bufflo was 0.739, while the allocation efficiency averages were about 0.809, and the economic efficiency averages were 0.605. Thus, the first hypothesis can be rejected and this means these farms can increased all these efficiency (technical efficiency). 2. The most important factors affecting the technical efficiency of cows or buffalo were farm size (number of animals), age and years of education. for farmers Thus, the second original hypothesis for these three variables can be rejected. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


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