PhD Thesis      [Total: 517 ]

Economic Study for the nutritional Gap of wheat crop in Egypt

Al-sayid Taha Mohmed Ahmed Al-boray, 2022


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 2022.
The study aimed to determine the dimensions of the food gap for the wheat crop in Egypt, and the results showed that the wheat foot security coefficient amounted to about 0.34, which is a value less than the correct one, which reflects the low state of food security from it. It was also found that a decrease in the amount of local production of wheat by 1% leads to an increase in the nutritional gap of wheat by 1.04%, while an increase in the population and the average per capita consumption of wheat by 1% leads to an increase in the nutritional gap of wheat By 1.33% and 1.79%, respectively, Consistent with the economic logic, the study recommended the necessity of creating an accumulation in the strategic wheat stock that is sufficient for local consumption for a period of 6 months, according to food security considerations.

"Utilization OF Agricultural Waste for Treating Waste Water from Food Industries"

Sanaa Hassan, 2021


Increase in environmental awareness at few last decades raises the interest of applying natural coagulants as an alternative to chemical ones.
In developing countries and in Egypt in particular, industrial water treatment is usually neglected. One of the reasons causes facilities avoiding treating industrial effluent is the high cost of chemicals used in treatment process. Beside high cost, chemicals used in water treatment plants are environmentally suspicious with issues related to disposal.
Coagulation and disinfection abilities of pomegranate peels aqueous extract were assessed in current work. Jar test procedures and desk well diffusion method was used in these purposes. Parameters affecting coagulation process were evaluated and optimized. Total suspended solid removal efficiency was the parameter used in evaluating treatment process effectiveness. Tests were performed using standard methods.
The results of this work revealed that pomegranate peels aqeous ex has great potentials as natural coagulant in cheese industry effluent treatment. Furthermore, sludge produced from treatment process using pomegranate peels extract was compared to that produced of using aluminum sulfate. Studying rheological properties of flocs using a Brokfield rheometer showed that the use of peels as coagulant produced sludge with less attendance for pipe blocking and slightly more compact than Aluminum sulfates sludge.
pH value of treated water using the bio coagulant remained largely unaffected after treatment contrary to that of Alum treated water.
Coagulation mechanism in both bio coagulant and alum was studied. Results revealed that in case of bio coagulant bridging and adsorption mechanism is the weighted hypothesis to explain the process. In case of alum, charge neutralization is the most likely mechanism. Bacterial inactivation was also notable, applying pomegranate peels extract on E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus and total coliform leads to formation of satisfied inhibition zone at lower concentrations compared to Alum solution.
Keywords: Extraction, Polyphenolic compounds, Pomegranate peels, Cheese processing waste water, Natural coagulants.


Wafaa amin, 2020


Pomegranate fruit contains high content of phytochemical constituents which have many health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of pomegranate fruit parts: arils, rind and peel as sources of bioactive compounds as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to be used as an active edible film. Results clearly demonstrated that peel extract (PE) had the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids (342 mg GAE /g and 82.33mg catechol /g , respectively) followed by rind extract (RE) containing 213.00 mg GAE/g and 70.50 mg catechol /g, respectively, and finally arils extract (AE) ( 108.22 mg GAE /g and 55.58 mg catechol/g, respectively).Results indicated that total anthocyanins content was concentrated in PE (15.24mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g) and AE (11.04 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g), while RE had the lowest value (6.51 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g). Peel extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity followed by RE and were significantly higher than that of AE. These results were confirmed with the DPPH and ABTS+ assays. Consequently, PE followed by RE had higher antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic strains than AE and can be used as natural preservative for food. Peel extract and RE were incorporated into pectin film at concentrations 7.5 and 15 mg/ml to develop an active edible film. Pectin film without the tested fruit parts extract was used as the control film. The obtained results revealed that these extracts caused an improvement in the barrier properties, mechanical properties and successfully developed and considered as an active edible film with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Based on our results, pectin edible coatings based PE can be used for extending the shelf life of fresh cut apple and mango fruits by delaying microbial spoilage and improve fruit quality.

An Economic Study of Food Security in Egypt

Shaimaa Aly Almahlawy, 2020


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 2020.
The food problem is one of the most important strategic issues that receive special attention at all levels. It has political, social and economic dimensions. Therefore, the study aimed to identify the food security of the individual in Egypt, and to identify the most important obstacles to the demand for these products and their impact on food security and to determine the factors affecting the production and consumption of strategic goods. The study included four chapters, the first section of which was addressed in addition to the introduction that includes the importance of the study, the problem, the goal, and the data sources, in addition to the research method. This section examined the theoretical framework and the reference review of studies related to the subject of the study where these previous studies were divided to studies concerned with food commodities, secondly studies related to grains, third studies related to vegetables and fruits, the fourth was on studies related to animal production, and the fifth was on studies related to manufactured goods. The second chapter dealt with the current situation of productive and consumer energy and the food gap for the main agricultural commodity groups in Egypt and includes three chapters, the first of which addressed the productive capacity of food commodities for the most important food commodities, and the second consumed the energy consumption of food commodities in Egypt, and the third the food gap and the self-sufficiency ratio of food commodities Main. The third chapter dealt with the food balance and food security transactions for the main food groups in the Arab Republic of Egypt three chapters, where the first chapter deals with the food balance of the main food groups in Egypt, the second deals with food security transactions for the main food groups and their determining factors, and the third forecasts the production and consumption of the main food groups in Egypt. As for the fourth and final chapter, it deals with food security projects in Egypt and includes two chapters, where the first chapter deals with food security projects in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and the second reflects the repercussions of the January 2011 revolution and its impact on food security projects using mock variables. The study also included the summary and results in Arabic and English, recommendations, and references in Arabic and English and the annexes. The study clarified the indicators of food security and factors affecting food security through estimating the size of the food gap, the average per capita share, the percentage of self-sufficiency, daily local consumption, and the period of sufficient production for consumption per day and inventory. Strategic and food security coefficient Food security coefficients for the major food groups and their determinants and forecast production and consumption for the main food groups in Egypt the implications of the Yanai revolution 2011 and its impact on food security projects.

An Economic Analysis of The Efficiency of The Performance of Wholesale Markets for The Trade of Vegetables and Fruits in Egypt

Amr Ali Elshafey, 2020


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, 2020.
The problem of the study is that there are big marketing differences between the prices that the product gets against production costs and what the consumer pays for the same product when purchasing it.
In light of the research problem, a brief indication of the objectives of this thesis can be indicated:
Evolution of quantities and prices of the most important vegetable and fruit crops in the Nozha market during the period (2009-2018)
Seasonal study of crop prices under study in Al-Nuzha Market during the period (2009-2018)
By studying the productive and economic indicators of the study crops in the sample of farmers in the Nubaria region for the agricultural season (2017/2018), it was found that the profits of the pound spent for orange 1.6, grapes 2.5, tomatoes 2.1, and potatoes 2.1
Calculating the profitability of the retailer from the marketing paths of the study sample crops for the same season, it was found to be about 608 pounds / ton for oranges, 682 for grapes, 277 for tomatoes, 295 for potatoes.
And by studying the relative importance of the marketing problems of the study crops according to the opinions of marketers in the study sample, it was found that with regard to oranges, the problem of the lack of trained and sorting labor was the biggest problem facing producers by 44%, and for grapes and tomatoes, the problem of increasing collection costs by 76%, 82% for each Of them, for potatoes, the problem of lack of market information was 52% of the opinions of the producers
As for the relative importance of the marketing problems of the study crops according to the opinions of wholesalers, the problem of the farmer's lack of interest in sorting and grading operations and the lack of market information was the biggest problem facing merchants by 44%, and for grapes the problem of the lack of marketing structure in the local markets was 44%, and for tomatoes and potatoes it was The high prices of packages and the delay in sales operations are the biggest problems facing wholesalers
With regard to the relative importance of marketing problems according to the opinions of retailers for the most important horticultural crops of the study sample, it was found that for oranges, grapes and potatoes, the problem of monopoly of some traders and brokers was the biggest problem facing retailers by 62%, and for tomatoes, the problem of farmer's lack of interest in sorting and grading operations was the biggest problem with 46% of retailers' opinions.

The Economics of Production and Marketing of Non – Traditional Diets in Egypt

Mohamed Hassan El Sheikh, 2020


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Banha University, 2020.
The study also shows the role of unconventional fodder in increasing red meat production on the one hand and the use of waste and recycling it to protect the environment from pollution on the other hand, so this study is necessary to demonstrate the economic importance of unconventional fodder in the Arab Republic of Egypt and its role in enriching the economic development of livestock in Egypt.
The problem of the study is the inability of the productive capacity of the feed resources of farm animals in Egyptian agriculture to cover the animal needs of these resources. This deficit in food for ruminant animals is estimated at about 4.2 million tons of digested foodstuffs. Feeds represent the largest aspect of the cost of animal production in Egypt to meet the needs of The increased demand for it as a result of the increase in population and the increase in the standard of living on the one hand and the increase in healthy food awareness on the other hand despite the increase in the quantities produced from it especially in light of the decline in per capita share from about 11 kg / year in 2000 to about 9 kg / year in 2017, With a permanent gap in the production of red meat amounted to about -618,000 tons, which led to an increased dependence on food imports of animal products in general and red meat products from 1.1 billion pounds in 2003 to about 25 billion pounds in 2017, especially after the liberalization of the exchange rate To meet the necessary needs, which has resulted in an increase in the level of red meat prices that is not commensurate with the income levels, which constitutes an additional burden on the family budget, especially the portion allocated for spending on red meat in Egypt,
This is in addition to the reluctance of many producers to work in the field of animal husbandry for several reasons, including the high prices of fodder and workers ’wages, with a deficit in the quantities of those fodder, as the size of the animal feed gap reached about 12.8 million tons of plant feed in the same year, and the severity of this problem increases Due to the shortage of animal feed materials in Egypt, in addition to the waste in agricultural by-products and by-products of some field crops, which are disposed of in negative ways, Thus, these products are treated as a burden that must be disposed of and not an important economic and environmental resource. Therefore, full use of them should be made through the optimum exploitation and recycling in the unconventional feed industry, especially with the continuous increase in the production of these wastes with a gap and deficit in the quantities of feed Animal.


Eman Yousef, 2020


Bio-production of lactic acid using microorganisms is promising natural processing, particularly, lactic acid production from industrial wastes such as voluble by-products of dairy industries as well as molasses which is by-product of the sugar manufacturing process. The aim of the present work was to produce LA using different known strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolation of LAB from salted whey capable of growing on high salt concentration and enhancement production of LA by the obtained strains using immobilization technique in repeated batch fermentation process. Factors affecting lactic acid production yield were studied during fermentation process of whey permeate, salted cheese whey and their mixtures using different known strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Optimum conditions for production of lactic acid were mixture of salted whey and whey permeate (1:1), contained 5% sugar, 3% salt and 0.5% calcium carbonate during static state fermentation at 37°C to give 27-38 g/l with efficiency ranged between 60- 80%. L. casei and L .rhamnosus B-445 were the most efficient strains. Seventy four strains of LAB were isolated from salted cheese whey and examined its ability to produce lactic acid. The most efficient nine isolates were biochemically and molecular identified as Enterococcus faecalis– 30, Enterococcus faecium -57, three strains (Enterococcus faecalis–53, 54 and 58), three strains (Enterococcus faecalis –48, 51 and 65) and Enterococcus hirae-68. Production of LA decreased with increasing of sugar concentration, where better sugar concentrations was 5 followed by 10% for production of LA from molasses. Enterococcus faecalis-58, Enterococcus hirae-68, mixture of them and L. casei were immobilized by sodium alginate 2% entrapped cells. Repeated batch used for LA production by immobilized Enterococcus faecalis-58, Enterococcus hirae-68, mixture of them and L. casei cells under optimum conditions. Results indicated that: The best bacterial strain was Enterococcus faecalis 58 which gave maximum LA production and yield 36.95 g/l and 81% respectively after 36 h of incubation period using medium containing 5% sugar concentration. Sodium alginate immobilized cells exhibited good mechanical strength during repetitive fermentations and could be used in repetitive batch cultures for more than 126 days.

Key words: lactic acid bacteria, whey permeate, salted whey, molasses, batch and
repeated batch fermentation, immobilization.

Analytical Study of The Impact of Virtual Water on the Egyptian Agricultural Balance of Trade

Nermeen Nasr Mahmoud, 2020


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, El Fayom University, 2020.
Water scarcity is the main determinant of agricultural production in the Arab world in general and Egypt in particular now and in the future. Water needs have increased dramatically, with the fixed quantity of the main water resource in Egypt at 55.5 billion m3, represented by the Nile River, where the amount of water needs amounted to about 76.25 billion m3, with a deficit of about 20.75 billion m3. The problem of the study shows the increasing gap between the water supply and demand with the increase of population and the increase of water requirements, which leads to a reduction in per capita fresh water to about 846.38 m3 per capita, which is less than the level of water poverty estimated at 1000 m3 per capita. Which has led to the need to study the best ways to manage and use water more efficiently.
The study aimed to analyze the impact of virtual water on the Egyptian agricultural trade balance, through several sub-objectives.
The study included four main chapters, in addition to the introduction that includes a problem and objectives of the study, data sources and research method, beside to Arabic-language and English-language summary, Arabic and foreign references, abstract, recommendations, and appendices.
The crops of the agricultural trade balance were divided into three categories according to their content of virtual water, which are high content crops, which contain more than 2000 m3/ton, and medium content crops, whose content ranges between 1000-2000 m3/ton, Crops of low content, which are less than 1000 m3/ton.
Some indicators were used, such as: Gini-Hirschman Coefficient, and Water Intensity Indicator. The Path Analysis Model and Asymmetry and causality tests were used using by NonLinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) method, to measure the effect of the most important factors on both the amount of exports and imports, and the amount of virtual water exported and imported. Linear programming and goal programming were used to achieve optimum scenarios for both export structure, imports and trade balance, with a higher water use and better economic return.
The study concluded with some suggested recommendations, then a summary of the most important results, and the references that used to serve the purpose of the study.

Biological Studies on the Interaction between some Available Drugs and Nutrients

azza Bakry hamza, 2019


The present study investigated the interaction between some of foods (beef liver, milk full cream powder and tomatoes) which rich in iron, calcium and Vit.C respectively and flumox as an antibiotic by effecting on the blood glucose level, some physiological parameters as liver functions, kidney functions, histological properties of liver and kidney in rats. Forty five albino rats were divided into 5 groups, the first as a control negative group, the positive control group which received flumox .While, the other group fed basal diet with 10% beef liver, milk full cream powder and tomatoes with antibiotic source. At the end of experiment, body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency ratios were calculated. Also, fasting blood glucose, creatinine, serum urea, (AST) and (ALT) were determined. From the results, it could be noticed that, the full cream powder milk contained the higher protein, fat and ash while fresh tomatoes contained higher carbohydrate and fiber. Beef liver had 7.8mg of Iron and 25mg vit C but It had lowest in calcium while milk had highest content of calcium 930 mg but had lowest in Iron and Vit C 0.40mg and 0 mg, respectively. Body weight gain was significantly decreased in flumox group (positive group) but increased in groups fed on liver and tomato juice. There is no significant with liver, kidney and spleen weight as compared with both controls. There were significant between G4 and G5 with the others for GPT. The resulted revealed that there are no significant changes between G4 and G5 for urea level.

Key words: - Beef liver, milk full cream powder, tomatoes,
Biochemical analysis , flumox, antibiotic

استخدام بعض مخلفات النباتات والأعشاب لإنتاج مخبوزات وظيفية ودراسة تأثيرها ضد السمية الكبدية فى الجرذان

Mohammed Abo El naga, 2019


The present study was undertaken to analyze the chemical composition, bioactive components, function properties and antioxidant activity of purslane and fig leaves powder and studies the effect of their extracts on diclofenac-sodium induced hepatotoxicity in rats via determination of biochemical parameters and their powders for productions function health bakery products. The obtained results showed that, proximate composition of purslane and fig leaves powder had revealed the highest amount of crude protein and crude fiber and the ascorbic acid of purslane and fig leaves powder were 108.7 and 143 mg/100g, respectively. The total phenolic contents in the purslane and fig leaves powder were 129.1 and 169.6mgGAE/100g, respectively while total flavonoids content was 156.8 and 613.6mg Rutin/100g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of purslane and fig leaves powder were 79.22 and 85% for DPPH scavenged, respectively and 31.57 and 32.84 mgGAE/100g for FRAP, respectively. The results of HPLC for phenolic and flavonoid compounds in purslane and fig leaves powder were showed that 13 phenolic and flavonoid compounds were detected. The adult male rats were pretreated orally with purslane (PuE) and fig leaves (FlE) extracts at a dose of 10ml/kg and 200mg/kg body weight, respectively for 14 days. Co-treatment of diclofenac-sodium (DS) 16mg/kg body weight was given orally for 7days. The present results demonstrated that the treatment with PuE and FlE combination with DS induced a marked improvement in the studied parameters. Plasma liver enzyme activities as well as bilirubin levels were increased in the groups receiving diclofenac only or in combination as compared with control group. However, the administration of PuE and FlE ameliorated DS induced hepatotoxicity by improving antioxidant status, decreasing inflammation, lowering TBARS and weakening the adverse effect of diclofenac on hepatic tissues. Liver injury was confirmed by the histological changes. In general, the replacement levels of purslane powder affected the diameter, thickness, spread ratio, weight, volume and specific volume of biscuits. Substitution levels influenced all sensory parameters significantly except the odour. The substitution of purslane to biscuits made biscuits harder but still accepted. The spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of fig leaves powder. Also, the colour was decreased significantly by the addition of fig leaves powder at all levels when compared to control. There was a significant increase in the height of cakes which substituted with purslane at all treatment when compared to control. When comparing 10%P and 20%P substitutions to the control, panelists did not find any significant difference (P<0.05) in colour, taste, texture, odour and overall acceptability. On the other hand, the measured hardness of samples showed that the cake became soft with increasing levels of purslane powder. The height of the cake samples substituted with 5%F and 7.5%F increased significantly (p ? 0.05) as compared to control. Also, the colour was not affected by the addition of fig leaves powder at levels of 5%F and 7.5%F substitution. In the texture profile analysis, the measured hardness of samples showed that the cake became harder with increasing levels of fig leaves powder particularly at replacement level of 7.5%F than 5%F and 10%F. It can be concluded that the purslane and fig leaves powder contains a wide range of bioactive component such as pheolics, flavonoids, and vitamins with high antioxidant activity. The enhancement of antioxidants and promising activity against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity may a result for the effect of PuE and FlE. Biscuits and cake of acceptable quality can be prepared, by substituting wheat flour with up to 20% purslane powder and 7.5% fig leaves powder.