Journal      [Total: 1163 ]

Genetic diversity and phenotype characterization of native rabbit in Middle-Egypt

El-Sayed Abd El-Kafy, yaser Badawi, Nagy Hassan, 2016


Survey of native rabbit populations were conducted in three governorates; Fayum (FY), Bani-Suef (BN) and Minya (MN) in Middle-Egypt region The phenotype data and samples of Native - Middle-Egypt rabbits (NMER) were collected randomly from 8 cities in these governorates Phenotype pattern of NME Rrabbit population was included body parts, coat color and body dimension in rabbit. Samples from the same city were considered as a population. Eight microsatellite loci were used to provide a comprehensive insight into the genetic status and relationship among 8 NMER rabbit populations A total of 92 rabbits from 8 cities of Middle-Egypt region were studied.
Standard statistics parameters of genetic variability within and between populations were calculated The observed heterozygosity, unbiased expected heterozygosity and the effective number of alleles were used to assess the genetic variation of each indigenous breed. Results show a moderate genetic diversity and observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.062 and 0.428. The FST values between pairs of breeds, using all data; indicate a generally high level of genetic differentiation, ranging from 0.026 to 1.743 which indicated a little connection between FY and MN governorate result to the long geographical distance and nature barriers. We can conclude that Phenotype pattern of NMER populations had common model in body parts but their coat color follows different models. NMER populations are a small to medium-sized breed. The current study is the first detailed analysis of the genetic diversity of native rabbit populations. The data generated here provides valuable information about the genetic structure of the 8 rabbit populations and this can be used to designate priorities for their conservation. It is needed to increase numbers the samples and the microsatellite investigated and more genetic studies by using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data for rabbit in Egypt.
keys words - Survey, rabbit populations, Egypt, Native, phenotype.

Effect of guar korma meal in new zealand white doe rabbits diets on productive and physiolqgical performance

Fadila Easa, Hemat Abdel- Magied, Amal Hekil, 2016


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of guar korma (Gyamopsis tetragonloba L.) meal (GKM) in New Zealand white (NZW) does rabbit diets on productive and physiological performance during gestation and lactation period and growth performance of weanings. A total number of forty multi-parious does 8-12 month old were distributed to five experimental treatments. Does were fed different inclusion levels of GKM being: 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%. Does were naturally inseminated and housed separately in individual wired-cages. All animals were kept under the same management and hygienic conditions. Also, the effect of this treatments on live body weight, feed intake for does (after gestation and lactation period), milk yield, litter size, litter weight (weekly), feed cost and some blood parameters were recorded. Results indicated that feeding 5.0 % GKM significantly increased feed intake during gestation and lactation period, while feeding 7.5 and 10.0% GKM diets resulted in inferior feed intake. Does fed on 5.0 % GKM recorded significantly the highest milk yield during four weeks of lactation compared with other groups. Litter size at birth and weaning were significantly higher in the control and 5.0% GKM groups than those fed 2.5, 7.5 and 10.0% GKM groups Litter weights at birth and corresponding litter weight gains and through 4-week lactation period were increased with dietary GKM 5.0% while it decreased in the rest of treatments. Total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose concentrations were increased with feeding on 5.0% GKM diet compared with other treatments, while control showed the highest concentration of tryglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma. Adding the GKM to doe rabbits diet did not after transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase, AST and alanine aminotransferase, ALT) activity. The lowest feeding cost per weaned rabbits was achieved with 5.0% GKM group compared with other treatments.
Based on the overall obtained results it could be recommend to include guar korma meal in doe-rabbits diet up to 5.0% of the diet without negative effect on performance during gestation and lactation periods also saving cost of feeding with 5.0% GKM
Key word: Guar Korma Meal, Doe Rabbits, Gestation, Lactation Blood Parameters.

Effect of different dietary fiber levels on reproductive and economic performance of sinai local, strain cocks

Abdou Abdallah, Malak Bahara, Yaser Rizk, Ahmed Ibrahim, 2016


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different dietary fiber levels in local Sinai cocks diets on the reproductive and economic performance during the period from 15-40 wks of age. Eighteen Sinai cocks were randomly assigned to different levels of crude fiber. The basal diet contained 3.65% crude fiber and the experimental treatments were given higher levels of crude fiber as a result of usage different levels of sunflower meal, olive cake and combination between them. While, all hens (180 female) were fed layer diet contained 17% crude protein and 2750 Kcal/Kg diet ME. Results of the current study are summarized as follows:
1. The cocks fed diet contained 5.9 and 4.65% CF (14 and 7% SFM) recoded the lowest live body weight, and also resulted in a significantly decrease (p<0.05) in body weight gain compared to the control diet.
2. The mass motility of sperms was significantly increased (p<0.05) by about 16.28% of males fed diet contained 6.02 % CF (7% SFM+5%OK) comparing with control diet.
3. Both progressive motility and sperm concentration were improved by increasing dietary CF from 3.65% (control) to 6.02 % (7% SFM+5%OK).
4. The fertility% was significantly improved (p<0.05) in eggs from hens that were inseminated by cocks fed diet contained 5.9% CF (14% SFM) by about 7.89 % compared to the control diet.
5. The hatchability of set eggs % was significantly increased (p<0.05) by feeding diet contained 5.9 5% CF (14% SFM) comparing with the control diet followed by those.
fed diet with 5.45% CF and 4.77% CF (7% SFM and 5% OK).
6. The diets contained 4.77 and 6.02% CF (5% OK and 7% SFM +5 % OK) resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) the hatchability of fertile eggs % by about 3.38% as compared to the control group.
7. The diet contained 5.95 CF (14% SFM) resulted in significantly improved (p<0.05) economic efficiency of hatchability of set eggs compared with the control diet.
The present study illustrates that local Sinai cocks require a moderate levels of crude fiber in diets ranged from 4.65 to 5.95 % from (5 % Ok, 7% and 14% SFM) during the period from 15 to 40 weeks of age for optimal the reproductive and economical performance.
Key Words: Dietary fiber- Sunflower meal-Olive cake- Cocks- Semen Quality,

Study the relationship between selenium and heat shock proteins under heat stress for local sinai chickens strain

Hanan Mohamed, Yaser Rizk, Aly El-Slamony, Ahmed Soliman, Ahmed Ibrahim, 2016


The main objective of this study was aimed to investigate the effects of different ambient temperature {normal temperature (NT) and heat stress (HS) conditions} and dietary supplementation of different selenium (Se) source (inorganic, organic and Nano Se) on some productive performance and physiological parameters for Sinai chickens during growth period and A total of 198, 8-wks-old of Sinai chickens were used and randomly distributed into two experimental groups (NT & HS), and then each group was divided into three sub-groups (inorganic, organic and Nano Se) in a factorial design (2x3) Chickens fed diet naturally contaminated with Aflatoxin (AFBI),7.50 µg/kg DM.
The results indicated that heat stress resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Lymphocytes (L) cells (%), plasma total protein and albumin were significantly decreased for chickens reared under heat stress, however, hemoglobin (Bb) concentration, white blood cells count, eosinophils cells (%), monocytes cells (%),globulin, calcium and phosphorus were not significantly affected. Moreover, a significant increases were recorded for red blood cells (RBC) count, heterophils (H) cells (%), H / L ratio, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and heat shock protein 70 for Sinai chickens reared under heat stress than those reared in thermo neutral during all the experimental periods.
Supplementing different selenium sources to the diet had no significant effect on body weight and gain, rectal temperature and respiratory rate, albumin, calcium, phosphor and heat shock protein 70 for Sinai chickens than those fed the control diet. Moreover, feed intake, plasma H (%), and H / L were significantly decreased as a result of supplementing Nano selenium to the diet during the periods of 12-16 and 8-16 wks of age than the control.
While, feed conversion was significantly improved by supplementing different sources of Se to Sinai chickens diet than the control. Significant increases were recorded in RBC count, Hb concentration and L cells (%), total protein, globulin and total antioxidant capacity for Sinai chickens fed diet supplemented with Se as compared with those fed the, control diet. These results indicated that heat stress severely reduced productive and physiological performance for Sinai chickens, whereas the productive and physiological performance was improved by dietary Se sources supplementation under heat stress.
Keywords: Heat Stress, Organic Selenium, Nano Selenium Productive and Physiological

Effect of different levels and sources of dietary fiber on productive and economic performance of local laying hens 2- during laying period

Abdou Abdallah, Malak Bahara, Yaser Rizk, 2016


A total number of 198 local Sinai laying hens (180 female + 18 males), 24weeks-old, were weighed and divided into six dietary treatments to investigate the effect of dietary different levels and sources of crude fiber on productive and reproductive performance and nutrients digestibility during the laying period (24-40 weeks of age). The birds were fed a control diet contained 3.5 % crude fiber (CF) while, the remaining treatments were given moderate levels of dietary crude fiber by suing different levels of sunflower meal (SFM) and olive cake (OK). Results obtained could be summarized in the following:
1. The different levels of CF had significantly higher BW and CBW comparing with the control diet (3.2% CF) except for the diet contained 5.42% CF (8% OK).
2. The inclusion of different fiber levels in the diets resulted in significantly decreased egg number/hen, while egg weight was significantly improved for the all dietary CF treatments compared to the control diet except for the diet contained S.42%CF where it did not actually differ from control diet.
3. Regarding to egg mass, no significant differences were found between the group fed diet contained 5.6 % CF and the control diet.
4. Feed conversion ratio was significantly lower for the birds fed diets with different levels of CF than control.
5. Diet containing 4.42%CF (7%SFM) resulted in a significant higher hatchability of set eggs compared to control and other treatments. In addition, the hatchability of fertile eggs tends to significantly increase in treatments fed 4.45,4.42 and 5.6% CF (7% SFM, 4% OK and 7%SFM+4%OK) as compared to the control diet.
6. Embryonic mortality significantly decreased by the diets contained 4.45, 4.42 and 5.6% CF compared to control group meanwhile the other treatment did not actually differ from control diet. .
7. All different levels of CF resulted in a significantly higher crude fiber and ether extract digestibility than control diet.

8. No significant influence of different levels of dietary crude fiber during the laying period at 40 weeks of age on the relative weight of sections of GIT segments and relative length of small intestine.
9. Hens fed diet with 5.6 % CF- tend to have greater HDL % than control, also, all treatments tend to have higher HDL/LDL than those fed 3.2% CF (control diet).
10. No significant effect on economic efficiency of egg production due to the diet contained 5.66%CF (14%SFM) compared to the control diet.
The current study illustrated that moderate levels of CF in this study can be used to reduce the embryonic mortality and enhance hatchability and chick weight at hatch without any harmful impact on EE of hatchability except for the diet with 4.42% CF (4% Ok) also, without any detrimental effects on egg weight, egg mass, egg quality and EE of egg production in respect of the diets contained 5.66%CF (14%SFM) and 5.6% CF (7%SFM+4%OK.(
Key Words: Dietary fiber, Sunflower meal, Olive cake, Laying performance Fertility.

Effect of spraying potassium iodide on productive performance, blood parameters and immuno-response of turkey chicks

Mohamed El-Sawy, Samya Ebrahim Wahba, 2016


A total of 120 one day-old Nicholas turkey chicks were divided randomly into six equal groups. The first and second groups were treated with distilled water (once and twice weekly) and served as control (T1 and T2), the third and forth groups (T3 and T4) were treated with 5% potassium iodide (KI) solution once and twice weekly, respectively, while fifth and sixth (T5 and T6) groups were treated with 10% potassium iodide (KI) solution once and twice weekly, respectively. The treatments were spraying over chick heads. The chicks were kept at rearing wire cages, and the feed and water were available ad libitum. At 45 days of age ten birds from each group were intramuscularly injected with 0.5 ml of SRBCs. The obtained results showed that chicks sprayed with 10% KI showed the highest LBW and gain (P<0.05) at 30, 45 and 60 days of age, followed by 5% Kl, while the control showed the lightest weights and gain. LBW and gain of chicks at 60 days of age was higher (P<0.05) for spraying once than twice/week. Both KI levels increased (P<0.05) WBCs count and blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration as compared to control. Chicks in 10% KI treatment showed the highest (P<0.05) WBCs count and Hb concentration. WBCs count was higher (P<0.05) by spraying the chicks twice/week than once/week. RBCs count and Hb concentration were nearly similar as affected by spraying time. Serum total protein (TP) concentration increased (P<0.05) with 10% KI as compared to control, but did not differ from that with 5% KI. Globulin (GL) concentration increased (P<0.05) and albumin (AL) was not affected by 10% KI However, AL/GL ratio increased (P<0.05) with 5% KI as compared to control, but did not differ from that with 10% KI. There were insignificant differences in AST and AL T activities. Serum T3 concentration was the highest (P<0.05) with 10% KI, followed by 5% KI and the lowest in control, respectively. T3 concentration was higher (P<0.05) by spraying twice than once/week. Chicks treated with 10% KI showed the highest (P<0.05) antibody titer and the lowest (P<0.05) lysozyme concentration, followed by 5% KI, while the control showed the lowest antibody titer and the highest lysozyme concentration (P<0.05). Spraying twice/week increased (P<0.05) antibody titer and decreased lysozyme concentration, reflecting the highest immune response for chicks treated with 10% KI twice/week.
It could be concluded that potassium iodide had positive effect on turkey chicks when used as spraying over heads of growing chicks with 10% once a week.
Keywords: Turkey chicks, iodine, growth performance, blood, immunity.

Effect of dietary humic acid supplementation on egg production, egg quality and fertility of turkey hens.

Samya Ebrahim Wahba, 2016


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of humic acid (HA) on reproductive performance, egg production, some blood parameters and carcass traits of turkey hens. A total of 160 turkey hens from White Holland strain were employed in a completely randomized block design with one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into four replicates (10 hens in each). Diets of the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th groups were supplemented with 0, 200, 300 and 400 mg HA/kg diet, respectively. Results showed that all HA levels increased (P<0.05) live body weight, feed conversion, egg production and egg quality in terms of increasing (P<0.05) egg yolk index, Haugh units and shell thickness, while albumen, yolk and shell percentages, shape index and yolk color score of eggs were not affected by HA. Fertility and hatchability rates were improved (P<0.05) by all HA levels. Count of red and white blood cells in whole blood and albumin concentration in blood plasma increased (P<0.05) by all HA levels as compared to control, being the highest for HA at a level of 300 mg/kg at all age intervals. Activity of AST and ALT and concentration of thyroid hormone (T3) in blood plasma were not affected by HA. Carcass traits showed in terms of weight of carcass, liver, gizzard, spleen and oviducts relative to live body weight were the highest (P<0.05) in hens fed HA diets at levels of 300 and 400 mg/kg diet.
Based on the obtained results, it could be concluded that dietary humic acid supplementation in turkey diet markedly improved reproductive performance, egg quality and carcass traits without adverse effects on healthy status of laying hens.
Keywords: Humic acid, turkeys, reproductive performance, egg traits, blood, carcass.

Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens

Mahmoud Hamza El-Deep, 2016


The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol lnJectlon Into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven I-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single Intrapentoneal (i.p.) Injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol inJection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-inJected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into I-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth.
Key words: adipose tissue, beta-2 agonist, chicken, clenbuterol, skeletal muscle.

تأثير التغذية على النانو سلينيوم على الأداء الأنتاجى و حالة مضادات الأكسدة و المناعة فى دجاج التسمين فى ظل ظروف درجة حرارة معتدلة و العالية

Mahmoud Hamza El-Deep, 2016


The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of nano-selenium on growth performance, anti oxidative status, and immune function in broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral (22± 1 °c) or high ambient temperature (35±1°C) conditions. Thirty-six broiler chicks at l5d old were randomly divided into 6 treatments in a 3x2 factorial design. The main factors included the dietary supplementation (basal diet without Se supplementation [control], basal diet with 0.3 mg of nanoelemental Se per kilogram of diet [nano-Se], and basal diet with 0.3 mg of sodium selenite per kilogram of diet [Sse]) and the ambient temperature challenge (22±1°C or 35±1°C). The birds were given the experimental diets from 15 to 30 d of age. High ambient temperature significantly depressed body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, breast muscle weight, and abdominal fat weight while feeding nano-Se clearly alleviated these negative effects of high ambient temperature. In addition, feeding nano-Se increased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in liver and alleviated the negative effects of high ambient temperature via reducing the malondialdehyde content in liver and breast muscle. Furthermore, feeding nano-Se increased mRNA expression of cytokine genes (interleukins 2 and 6) under both thermoneutral and high ambient temperature conditions. Under both thermoneutral and high-temperature conditions, broiler chickens fed nano-Se had higher Se and vitamin E concentrations in breast muscle than broiler chickens fed the control diet. In contrast, feeding Sse at the same dose as nano-Se did not alleviate the negative effects of high ambient temperature on broiler chickens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with nano-Se at 0.3 mg/kg diet might enhance growth performance by improving anti oxidative or immune properties in broilers reared under high ambient temperature.
Keywords: antioxidative status, broiler chickens, growth performance, nano-selenium


Aymen Abdo Ghonim, 2016


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in-ovo L- carnitine injection on hatchability of Domyati duck eggs and post hatching growth performance of ducklings. A total of 540 eggs were randomly divided into six treatments group. The 1st , 2nd , and 3rd groups were: negative control ©; sham-injected control (P) and solution injected (8) groups, while, the 4th, 5th, and 6th groups were in-ovo injected with 0.1 ml/egg saline solution containing 10,20 or 30 mg of L-car, respectively. A total number of 180 ducklings hatched from the six experimental treatment groups were weighed and distributed into six experimental groups (30 ducklings each) and reared during growth period (0-12 wks of age) to study the effect of in-ovo experimental treatments on growth performance, carcass traits, blood plasma parameters and breast muscle histology.
The obtained results could be summarized as follows:
1. In-ovo L-car (10 mg) injection had significantly (p<0.01) the best value of hatchability (%) followed by control groups.
2. All L-car doses (10, 20, and 30 mg) recorded high significant (p<0.01) values for live body weight from hatch up to the end of experimental period, with the low dose (10 mg) being the best.
3. The body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were significantly increased, while, feed consumption was decreased in ducklings from L-car treated eggs during the overall periods compared to the control groups.
4. Carcass traits for ducklings from all L-car treated eggs were significantly (p<0.01) improved while, decreased in abdominal fat(%) as compared to control groups.
5. Plasma HDL was significantly (p<0.05) increased and LDL decreased in ducklings from in-ovo L-car injection treatments as compared with the control groups.
6. Plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and Insulin-like growth factot-l concentration were significantly (p<0.01) higher for the in-ovo L-car injected groups than the control groups.
7. Histological observations showed pronounced increases in myofibrils size and number in breast muscle sections of L-car ducklings compare to the control ones; the 10 mg injected group was the best.
It is concluded that in-ovo injection of 10 mg L-car in Domyati duck eggs at day 17 of incubation period had positive effects on hatchability, blood plasma constituents, IGF-l, T3 hormone, growth performance and carcass traits during summer condition in Egypt.
Keywords: L-carnitine- in-ovo injection- Ducks- Hatchability- Carcas- Blood.