PhD Thesis      [Total: 581 ]

Economic Study for the nutritional Gap of wheat crop in Egypt

Al-sayid Taha Mohmed Ahmed Al-boray, 2022


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 2022.
The study aimed to determine the dimensions of the food gap for the wheat crop in Egypt, and the results showed that the wheat foot security coefficient amounted to about 0.34, which is a value less than the correct one, which reflects the low state of food security from it. It was also found that a decrease in the amount of local production of wheat by 1% leads to an increase in the nutritional gap of wheat by 1.04%, while an increase in the population and the average per capita consumption of wheat by 1% leads to an increase in the nutritional gap of wheat By 1.33% and 1.79%, respectively, Consistent with the economic logic, the study recommended the necessity of creating an accumulation in the strategic wheat stock that is sufficient for local consumption for a period of 6 months, according to food security considerations.


Marwa Abdel fathy, 2022


Fruits and vegetables have health benefits for consumers, due to their content of fiber, vitamins and antioxidant compounds. Meanwhile, the antioxidants can be occurring for many changes during harvesting, preparation and storage. So, the drying is the most appropriate processing method for producing of shelf life stable food products. Also, dried fruits can be stored and transported at a relatively low cost. Where, the hydration is the removal of water to optimum level to greatly minimize the microbial spoilage and deterioration of the reactions.

Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of Some Foods Fortified with Dried Mushroom Powder as a Source of Vitamin D

Rehab ِAhmed, 2022


Vitamin D plays a vital role in synthesizing calcium-carrying proteins in the small intestine and helps the absorption of calcium in the body, thus reducing the risk of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults, especially in women. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value and quality characteristics of some food products such as wa?es, breadsticks and salad cream forti?ed with dried mushroom powder (DMP) after exposure to sunlight for 60min as a source of vitamin D. The exposure of mushroom to sunlight for 60min before drying increased its content of vitamin D by 158% more than fresh mushroom (not exposed to sunlight). The DMP was added to the product’s formula by a ratio of 1, 2, and 3%. The addition of DMP increased protein, ash, fat, and vitamin D2 and D3 contents in all products, while carbohydrates and moisture contents were decreased in both wa?es, and breadsticks. The hardness of both wa?es and breadsticks was decreased with increasing the levels of DMP added, while the addition of DMP led to enhance bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in all products. The sensory evaluation of wa?es, breadsticks, and salad cream containing DMP was not changed than control sample. The results found that the intake of 100g of salad cream, wa?es, and breadstick (containing 3% DMP) could by providing more than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of vitamin D. Therefore, this study recommended the use of DMP (by a ratio of 3%) in fortifying food products in order to meet the RDA of vitamin D.

The Effect of Dietary Supplement on Glutathione Level in Rats

Abrahim Ahmed, 2022


Background: Oxidative stress occurs due to decreased glutathione inside the body. Some supplements may promote and stimulate glutathione production in the liver. This article aims to investigate the impact of different supplements on enhancing glutathione synthesis in rats’ livers. For this purpose 42 rats (male albino) were separated into 7 groups, each including 6 animals with average weights ranging between 150 and 160 g. Group 1 (control) and different groups consumed a basal diet for 8 weeks, whereas group 2 received 500 mg/kg bw of L-cysteine daily. Group 3 received 250 mg/kg bw of methionine, while group 4 got 250 mg/kg of L cysteine plus 125 mg/kg of methionine daily. Spirulina (20 mg/kg bw), turmeric (500 mg/kg bw), and dried garlic (500 mg/kg bw), respectively, were given to groups 5, 6, and 7.
Results: Utilizing the various dietary supplements decreased levels of liver function enzymes, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde while enhancing levels antioxidant enzymes of liver, and increased glutathione of kidneys and liver. However, cysteine alone at 500 mg/kg bw decreased glutathione formation in the liver and kidneys. Compared to the amino acid supplements (group 2, 3, 4) used, spirulina, turmeric, and dried garlic had a significant impact on reducing liver function enzymes, bilirubin, uric acid, creatinine, urea, and malondialdehyde and increasing antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione while turmeric supplement showed the best influence. Using dietary supplements did not result in any pathological modifications in the liver tissues, but there were some unsatisfactory minor alterations. However, group 2 showed considerable pathological developments in the liver tissues.
Conclusion: According to the findings, using the suggested dietary supplement except for cysteine alone can promote and encourage glutathione synthesis in different organs, especially the liver, hence alleviating the effects of oxidative stress associated with several illnesses.

Effects of Germination Parts of Seed Legumes on Histamine Levels in Rats

Abrahim Ahmed, 2022


يعتبر انزيم الديامين أوكسيديز هو الإنزيم الرئيسي في عملية تحلل الهيستامين الموجود في الغذاء. يحدث عدم تحمل الهيستامين بسبب اختلال توازن آليات إزالة الهيستامين، والتي يمكن علاجها بنظام غذائي منخفض الهيستامين. زادت في الآونة الأخيرة أهمية المكملات الغذائية الخارجية التي تحتوي على انزيم الديامين أوكسيديز خاصة تلك التي تنتج من مصادر منخفضة التكلفة للمساعدة في التحلل المائي المعوي للهيستامين. ونتيجة لذلك، هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى اختبار قدرت الأجزاء المنبتة من الحلبة والفول كمكمل غذائي يستخدم للتخلص من الهيستامين والحد من الضرر الناجم عن التركيزات المفرطة من الهيستامين التي يمكن أن تؤدي إلى الوفاة. تم تقدير تأثير إضافة 10? من الأجزاء المنبتة المجفدة من كل من الفول او الحلبة او تأثير خلطها بنسبة 5? من كل منها على الفئران التي تتناول محلول الهيستامين بتركيز 200 مجم / كجم من وزن الجسم عن طريق الفم. بالمقارنة مع الكونترول الموجب فان النظام الغذائي المحتوي على براعم البقوليات المجفدة (10? من الحلبة، 10? من الفول، أو الخليط الناتج عن خلط كل منهما بنسبة 5?) عمل على خفض الهيستامين بنسبة 29 و21 و36 ?، في حين زاد الجلوتاثيون بنسبة 129 و96 و150 ? على التوالي. بالإضافة إلى حدوث انخفاض في جميع وظائف الكبد وكذلك المالونالدهيد، في حين ازداد نشاط الإنزيمات المضادة للأكسدة في الكبد. وأخيرا، تظهر النتائج أن براعم البقوليات مثل الحلبة والفول يمكن استخدامها لصنع مكملات إنزيمية وظيفية يمكن أن تساعد في تخفيف أعراض عدم تحمل الهيستامين.
الكلمات المفتاحية: الهيستامين، عدم تحمل الهيستامين، إنزيم ديامين أوكسيديز (DAO)، البقوليات، نابت الحلبة والفول

Analytical Study of The Role of Agricultural Cooperatives in Bringing About Sustainable Development in The Arab Republic of Egypt

Asmahan AbdElhady Mohamed, 2022


• Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2022.
Cooperatives play a fundamental role in agricultural development in many countries of the world, as is the case in some developing countries, led by Egypt, where they contribute a large share in providing agricultural needs and production requirements. And the establishment of the necessary facilities for production and marketing, including agricultural manufacturing units, warehouses, silos, distribution outlets, means of transportation, and others.
Egyptian agriculture faces several problems, whether production or marketing. This may be due to several reasons, perhaps the most important of which is the weakness and shrinking role of agricultural cooperatives, whether in providing services to farmers such as production requirements at reduced prices or marketing services for agricultural products. In light of the above, I aimed to propose a new system to activate the role of agricultural cooperatives to work towards achieving sustainable development, which requires studying several sub-goals represented in the factors affecting the capital of agricultural cooperative societies, the development of banks and loans provided by agricultural cooperative societies to serve their members, the role of agricultural cooperative societies in marketing Agricultural crops, the expected status of agricultural cooperatives in Egypt and the development of them.
Where the results of the statistical analysis showed that the capital of local associations for agricultural credit began to increase by a statistically significant amount, amounting to about 7.17 million pounds annually, representing about 8.13%. The associations’ money after the January Revolution amounted to about 37 thousand pounds annually, representing about 0.03% of the average for the period (2011-2020).
She also indicated that the number of agricultural village banks fluctuated between increase and decrease, as it reached its lowest in 2000 about 988 banks, while it reached its maximum in 2020 when it was estimated at about 1010 banks, while the general average for the period was about 1013 banks, the development of the possession of dealers in agricultural banks during the period (2000-2020), and from it it is clear that the possession of dealers in agricultural banks has fluctuated between increase and decrease, as the lowest in 2015 reached about 1.774 million feddans, while it reached its maximum in 2000 when it was estimated at about 4.275 million feddans, while the general average for the period was about 2.613 million acre.
The development of the value of wheat marketed cooperatively in agricultural credit associations showed that the value of wheat marketed cooperatively in agricultural credit associations fluctuated between increase and decrease, as the lowest value in 2011 reached about 72 million pounds, while it reached the highest value in 2015, when it was estimated at about 14968 million pounds, while it reached The average study period is about 4170 million pounds. The amount of cotton marketed cooperatively in agricultural credit associations decreased until the lowest quantity of cotton reached about 25 thousand quintals in 2013, then it began to increase by a statistically significant amount of about 6.06 thousand quintals annually, which represents about 2.01% of the average study period.
It turns out that the amount of sugar cane marketed cooperatively in agricultural credit associations fluctuated between increase and decrease, as the lowest amount was in 2001 about 7384 thousand tons, while it reached the highest amount in 2007 when it was estimated at about 16326 thousand tons, while the average for the study period was about 9337 thousand tons.
It turns out that the capital investments of cooperative societies for agrarian reform will be constant during the forecast period, as they will reach about EGP 144.1 million by 2023, which is no different from 2020 until 2030.
It turns out that the capital of water resources cooperative societies will increase during the forecast period, as it will reach about 2.459 million pounds by 2023, with a difference of 156 thousand pounds over 2020, or a rate of 6.8%, while it will reach by 2030, when it will be estimated at about 2.866 million pounds.

Functional jam production from blends of carrot and sweet potato pulp

Abrahim Ahmed, 2021


The study conducted to compare the mixed vegetable jams of carrots and sweet potatoes pulp at ratios 75:25 (M1), 60:40 (M2), 50:50 (M3), 40:60 (M4), and 25:75 (M5). Samples of jam tested for sensory and physicochemical characteristics. Jam blends at a ratio of 75:25 yielded the highest performance in terms of sensory properties and the physicochemical composition comprising 64.6°Brix, 3.87 pH, 0.36 acidity %, 46 total phenols mg/100 g, 1.91 carotenoids mg/100 g, 35.3 L*, 22.2 a*, 69.73 hue and 23.67 chroma at the storage finishing. Increasing sweet potatoes up to 50% decreased the score of texture for increasing fiber as well as the color became paler. The previous data confirmed the possibility of developing a new type of jam with high nutritional and sensory qualities by combining carrots and sweet potatoes at 75: 25% and 60: 40%.
Keywords: carrots; sweet potatoes; jam; sensory attributes; physicochemical


Mohammoud El koshoty, 2021


The main aim of this work is to utilize the solar and hybrid solar dryers. Drying mint and basil as most common herbal plants throughout the year. Different drying temperature and air recirculation rate were applied and tested their effects on the weight losses, moisture content and energy consumption. The hybrid solar dryer was manufactured in the Food Engineering and Packaging Department, Food Technology Res. Inst. Agricultural Research Center, Giza. The experiment was carried out at Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture Moshtohor, Benha University, Egypt (latitude 30° 21` N and 31° 13` E). During the period of January and February as winter and July to September as summer, 2019 season.

"Utilization OF Agricultural Waste for Treating Waste Water from Food Industries"

Sanaa Hassan, 2021


Increase in environmental awareness at few last decades raises the interest of applying natural coagulants as an alternative to chemical ones.
In developing countries and in Egypt in particular, industrial water treatment is usually neglected. One of the reasons causes facilities avoiding treating industrial effluent is the high cost of chemicals used in treatment process. Beside high cost, chemicals used in water treatment plants are environmentally suspicious with issues related to disposal.
Coagulation and disinfection abilities of pomegranate peels aqueous extract were assessed in current work. Jar test procedures and desk well diffusion method was used in these purposes. Parameters affecting coagulation process were evaluated and optimized. Total suspended solid removal efficiency was the parameter used in evaluating treatment process effectiveness. Tests were performed using standard methods.
The results of this work revealed that pomegranate peels aqeous ex has great potentials as natural coagulant in cheese industry effluent treatment. Furthermore, sludge produced from treatment process using pomegranate peels extract was compared to that produced of using aluminum sulfate. Studying rheological properties of flocs using a Brokfield rheometer showed that the use of peels as coagulant produced sludge with less attendance for pipe blocking and slightly more compact than Aluminum sulfates sludge.
pH value of treated water using the bio coagulant remained largely unaffected after treatment contrary to that of Alum treated water.
Coagulation mechanism in both bio coagulant and alum was studied. Results revealed that in case of bio coagulant bridging and adsorption mechanism is the weighted hypothesis to explain the process. In case of alum, charge neutralization is the most likely mechanism. Bacterial inactivation was also notable, applying pomegranate peels extract on E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus and total coliform leads to formation of satisfied inhibition zone at lower concentrations compared to Alum solution.
Keywords: Extraction, Polyphenolic compounds, Pomegranate peels, Cheese processing waste water, Natural coagulants.


Wafaa amin, 2020


Pomegranate fruit contains high content of phytochemical constituents which have many health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of pomegranate fruit parts: arils, rind and peel as sources of bioactive compounds as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to be used as an active edible film. Results clearly demonstrated that peel extract (PE) had the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids (342 mg GAE /g and 82.33mg catechol /g , respectively) followed by rind extract (RE) containing 213.00 mg GAE/g and 70.50 mg catechol /g, respectively, and finally arils extract (AE) ( 108.22 mg GAE /g and 55.58 mg catechol/g, respectively).Results indicated that total anthocyanins content was concentrated in PE (15.24mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g) and AE (11.04 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g), while RE had the lowest value (6.51 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g). Peel extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity followed by RE and were significantly higher than that of AE. These results were confirmed with the DPPH and ABTS+ assays. Consequently, PE followed by RE had higher antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic strains than AE and can be used as natural preservative for food. Peel extract and RE were incorporated into pectin film at concentrations 7.5 and 15 mg/ml to develop an active edible film. Pectin film without the tested fruit parts extract was used as the control film. The obtained results revealed that these extracts caused an improvement in the barrier properties, mechanical properties and successfully developed and considered as an active edible film with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Based on our results, pectin edible coatings based PE can be used for extending the shelf life of fresh cut apple and mango fruits by delaying microbial spoilage and improve fruit quality.