Journal      [Total: 9 ]

Relation between glutathione peroxidase enzyme and somatic cell count in bovine mastitis

Tarek Mossallam, 2014


This study was conducted to determine the relationship between milk and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, casein concentration and somatic cell count (SCC) in cows and buffaloes with subclinical mastitis. Following these tests carried out on 44 lactating cows, 10 out of them were classified as control and 38 buffaloes 10 of them were control. Comparative analysis of GPx activity in milk revealed significant differences , the average of this parameter is higher for mastitis than normal milk. GPx activity in blood shows no significant changes in cows and buffaloes with subclinical mastitis compared to healthy ones. The average quantity of casein in mastitic milk was lower compared with control. Mastitic milk GPx activity was directly correlated with the total SCC. Correlation coefficient between GPx activity and caseins in mastitic milk showed indirect trend (r =-.0555) in cows and (r= -.0623) in buffaloes. The positive correlation between SCC and GPx activity suggests that this enzyme may have potential to detect subclinical mastitis in dairy cows and buffaloes.

Emerging of coagulase negative staphylococci as a cause of mastitis in dairy aimals : An environmental hazard.

Noha Abd elmeggeed Abd eldayem, 2013


In Egypt, knowledge about the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) involved in mastitic animals is limited. CNS have emerged to be pathogens causing intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy herds. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of CNS in dairy ruminants (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats). A total of 884 quarter milk samples were investigated to study the prevalence of CNS among mastitic and subclinically mastitic cows, buffalo-cows, ewes and does in Egypt. Identification of the isolates was achieved using API staph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CNS were isolated from the examined subclinical mastitic cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats with percentages of 16.6%, 59.4%, 50% and 55.6% respectively. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcussaprophyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus simulans were identified as CNS that recovered from the examined milk samples. The CNS as mastitis causing agents could not be neglected as they can cause substantial economic losses.

Importance and factors affecting milk urea nitrogen estimation in dairy cows.

Kamil Mettyas, Reda Rageb, EL Sayed Hassan Attia, 2012


Milk urea nitrogen can be a practical indicator of the protein utilization of lactating cows in dairy cattle nutrition programs. Monitoring MUN offers the potential to evaluate the protein concentration in lactating cow rations and reduce farm expenses. The objectives of this study were to describe the factors that affecting milk urea concentrations in dairy cow in the Egyptian commercial dairy herds. Such factors include nutritional management, milk production, parity and lactation stages as managemental variables besides, udder health status and mastitis microbial pathogens and some milk parameters as Fat %, Protein %, Lactose %, SCC and pH as cow factors and finally preservation of milk samples by freezing as sampling factors. The study proved a positive linear correlation between MUN and feeding status and milk production in dairy cows. Since in high producer cows that given good feedstuff had MUN concentration 12.84 ± 1.02 mg/dl while it was 9.52 ± 0.23 mg/dl in low producer cows with poor feeding system. Milk urea was generally lower in primiparous cows (11.84 ± 1.02 mg/dl) than in older dairy cows in 2-4 lactation seasons or more than 4 seasons (14.52 ± 0.23 and 13.75 ± 0.71 mg/dl, respectively) and during the early lactation stage (10.98 ± 0.87 mg/dl). MUN concentrations were significantly influenced with the presence of bacterial species in bovine milk samples (P < 0.01) in compared them with milk samples without bacterial growth. Moreover, storage of milk samples at deep freezing or refrigerating did not influence the MUN up to 2 weeks and keep the reproducibility of MUN constant. The relationship between MUN and milk components showed that MUN was negatively associated with the percentages of milk fat % and SCC; however, we observed a positive relationship between MUN and milk protein percentage by using a linear regression model. In conclusion, Maintaining and monitoring MUN in the dairy herds provides an opportunity to formulate the dairy protein constituency that optimize nitrogen utilization for milk production and avoid possible negative effects on herd productivity. MUN varied by parity, stage of lactations, milk production. Controlling of these variables must put in consideration as potential confounders when exploring the relationship between MUN and nutritional management or measures of performance such as production. Freezing or even refrigerating of the milk samples is beneficial in situations such as field trials when there may be long period between the time of milk sampling and MUN analysis

Effect of yeast culture “Saccharomyeces cerevisiae” on some biochemical parameters of blood and milk composition in early lactating goat.

Rawia Ebrahim Khalil, Hayat Mohamed Al-Nor, 2012


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on some blood parameters and milk composition in late pregnant and early lactating Egyptian goat. Ten multiparious pregnant Baladi goat were allocated into two groups (5 does each) aged 2-3 years and weighing 30-40 kg. The experiment was initiated in the last month of pregnancy till two months postpartum. The control group fed on basal ration without any treatment and the second group fed on the same diet supplemented with 0.25 gm/ head/ day of dry live yeast culture. Blood and milk samples were collected from each animal in the early morning every two weeks all over the trial period. The results revealed that, blood lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidase and nitric oxide levels in the yeast culture SC treated group were significantly lower (P˂0.01) than those of control one. There was a significant increase (P˂0.01) in blood glutathion-S-transferase (GST) level. There was a significant increase (P˂0.01) in percentages of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in colostrum and milk of the yeast culture SC supplemented goat than the control ones. There was significant decrease (P˂0.01) in percentages of urea and somatic cell count(SCC) in the treated group compared with control ones. The lamb mortality rate was zero in the treated dams as compared with the lambs of the control ones (62.5%). The yeast culture SC supplementation led to significant increase (P˂0.01) in weight gain of the lambs at weaning compared with that of the control ones. In conclusion, using of the yeast culture SC in early lactating goat as a supplement had a beneficial effect on some blood parameters; increased antioxidant and decreased free radicals and improved milk constituents that led to increase productivity of the dams and lower the lamb mortality rate.

Effect of Meglumine antimonite (ant leishmaniasis drug) on newborn calves immunity.

Kamil Mettyas, Alaa Gomaa, Reda Rageb, Mohamed ELgarhy, 2011


The significant immuno-modulating effect of Meglumine antimonite (anti-leishmaniasis drug), MA, on Frisian newborn calves was estimated when it was administrated simultaneously with score guard vaccination to their dams at late pregnancy. MA potentiated the K99 and Rotavirus antibodies titers in sera of treated and vaccinated dams, (they raised to levels of 3900 ± 92 & 1200 ± 81, respectively) and in their colostrum as they increased to higher levels (20480 ±3125 & 5632 ±1254, respectively) in comparing with that of vaccinated only cows group or control group (neither vaccinated nor MA treated). Calves born to dams vaccinated &treated with MA either 1 or 2 doses exhibited maximum K99 and Rotavirus antibody titers in their blood at the ages of 1–3 weeks. The antibody titers were running parallel to the results of the total protein and ZST; IgG and IgM in sera of treated dams, their colostrum and their calves’ sera for up to 2 months of age. MA supplementation at the time of vaccination in pregnant dams augmented the IgG and IgM values in cows’ sera as well as in colostrum to the levels higher than that in other groups that reflected to the significant increase in IgG and IgM level in calves’ sera that born to MA treated dams. Moreover, MA was resulted in slight elevation in colostral specific gravity (SG) and consequently the total immunoglobulins contents as the SG is an indirect evaluation for the immunoglobulins. In conclusion, application of immuno-stimulant as MA increased the specific and non-specific immune response in dams sera and colostrum as well as calves sera, in addition to improvement the body weight gain in calves besides, the clinical observation e.g. morbidity and mortality rates

Improvement of polyvalent Clostridial vacecine



Clostridia diseases have been a concern of sheep and cattle producer for many years and the conational locally produced polyvalent Clostridial vaccine is used only six toxoid mixture protect animals against Cl. perferingenes type B&D ,Cl. chauvoei ,Cl. septicum,Cl.novyi type B,C and Cl. tetani only But Cl. perferingens type A has recorded as a cause of entrotoximia and sudden So adding Cl. perferingens type A has great role for controlling entrotoximia and sudden death in sheep & cattle caused by it.

Direct identification of major pathogens the bubalinesubclinical mastitis in Egypt using PCR

Alaa Gomaa, 2010


Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the PCR assays (using Universal and specific primers) for detection of the major pathogens of bubaline subclinical mastitis directly from 160 buffaloes milk samples compared to bacterial examination. The bacteriological examinations showed incidence of 23.75%, 15.62%, 3.12% and 0.62% for E. coli', S. aureus, S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae respectively. PCR was better in sensitivity and speciRcity than the conventional culture as it detected more positive results in culhuully negative milk samples. The level of sensitivity achieved in our experiments (5x10؛CFU/ml of milk) is applicable to milk sample analysis without sample enrichment. The results suggest that PCR assay especially the one working with universal primers could be used as an alternative method in routine diagnosis for rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection of E. coli, S. aureus, S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae in milk samples. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(10):652-660].

Anti bacterial activity of bovine milk lactoferrin against some mastitis causative pathogens with special regard to mycoplasmas.

Magdy Hasan, Alaa Gomaa, Hanaa Asfour, 2010


From a private farm a total number of 36 milk samples were collected from a clinically mastitic cows. The bacteriological examination showed isolation of mycoplasma bovis, S. aerus, E. coli, P.aeruginosa and S.agalactiae as single or mixed infection. Lactoferrin concentrations (LFC) in the clinical mastitic cow’s milk were higher (1.4 to 3.2mg/ml) than normal milk. The average LFC in milk from infected cows with M.bovis or S.aerus was obviously high either in single or mixed infection. The total number of 36 clinically mastitic milk samples was positive to M.bovis antibodies by using ELISA test while only 38.9% of the examined samples were positive to M.bovis by cultivation method. The most interesting finding in this assay was the antibacterial effect of lactoferrin (LF) on M.bovis, M.bovigentalium as well as P.aeruginosa and S.agalactiae originally isolated from bovine mastitis. Inhibitory activity of LF was seen in all tested strains. The most effective inhibitory activity of LF was seen against P.aeruginosa and S.agalactiae, followed by inhibitory activity of LF on the two mycoplasama strains. Inhibition of growth by LF was concentration dependent. The concentration of 1mg / ml was generally too low for a marked inhibitory effect.

The relationship between somatic cell count, milk constituents and pathogenic bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The relationship between somatic cell count, milk constituents and pathogenic bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The relationship between somatic cell count, milk constituents and pathogenic bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The relationship between somatic cell count, milk constituents and pathogenic bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

Hanaa Asfour, 2010


Bovine subclinical mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC.).We examined subclinical mastitic cow,s milk in Egypt by using California Mastitis Test (CMT) and analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of other milk components (milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids). The associations between SCC and other milk constituents were investigated, as well as the relationships between the bacterial species isolated from milk. Somatic cell counts, MUN, and the percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were analyzed in 289 quarter milk samples (272 quarter milk samples (QMS) with subclinical mastitis as well as from healthy control cows; 17 QMS). In particular, staphylococci specially S. aureus is the highest isolated bacteria from different scores of SCC either single (17%) or mixed with other bacteria (with E. coli; 37.4%, with S. agalactiae; 5.5% and with both of them; 1.4%). Also CNS was isolated in different percentages either single or mixed with other bacteria as (21.4% single and mixed with E.coli) and E.coli isolate single or mixed with other bacteria. The SCC values were significantly affected by bacterial species and milk samples infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had the highest SCC compared with milk containing other mastitis-causing bacteria. The correlation coefficients of SCC on milk fat (−0.302), lactose (−0.525), and MUN (−0.079), total solids (−0.338) and solid not fat (−0.402) were negative, whereas the correlation coefficient of SCC on protein was positive (0.150). When the data were categorized by the presence or absence of bacterial infection in the examined milk samples, all milk parameters were affected by the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These results show that high SCC negatively affect milk components and that a statistical approach associating SCC and milk components by bacterial infection can explain the patterns among them. Bacterial species present in milk are an important influence on SCC in Egypt.