PhD Thesis      [Total: 64 ]

Analytical Study of The Impact of Virtual Water on the Egyptian Agricultural Balance of Trade

Nermeen Nasr, 2020

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, El Fayom University, 2020. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Water scarcity is the main determinant of agricultural production in the Arab world in general and Egypt in particular now and in the future. Water needs have increased dramatically, with the fixed quantity of the main water resource in Egypt at 55.5 billion m3, represented by the Nile River, where the amount of water needs amounted to about 76.25 billion m3, with a deficit of about 20.75 billion m3. The problem of the study shows the increasing gap between the water supply and demand with the increase of population and the increase of water requirements, which leads to a reduction in per capita fresh water to about 846.38 m3 per capita, which is less than the level of water poverty estimated at 1000 m3 per capita. Which has led to the need to study the best ways to manage and use water more efficiently. The study aimed to analyze the impact of virtual water on the Egyptian agricultural trade balance, through several sub-objectives. The study included four main chapters, in addition to the introduction that includes a problem and objectives of the study, data sources and research method, beside to Arabic-language and English-language summary, Arabic and foreign references, abstract, recommendations, and appendices. The crops of the agricultural trade balance were divided into three categories according to their content of virtual water, which are high content crops, which contain more than 2000 m3/ton, and medium content crops, whose content ranges between 1000-2000 m3/ton, Crops of low content, which are less than 1000 m3/ton. Some indicators were used, such as: Gini-Hirschman Coefficient, and Water Intensity Indicator. The Path Analysis Model and Asymmetry and causality tests were used using by NonLinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) method, to measure the effect of the most important factors on both the amount of exports and imports, and the amount of virtual water exported and imported. Linear programming and goal programming were used to achieve optimum scenarios for both export structure, imports and trade balance, with a higher water use and better economic return. The study concluded with some suggested recommendations, then a summary of the most important results, and the references that used to serve the purpose of the study. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Economic Study to Produce The Most Important Grain Crops in Egypt

Maha Bastawy, 2019

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 2019. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The main objective of the study is taking shape in trying mostly yield of grain crop production through optimal use of available resources (water-Earth-capital) and the evolution of productivity indicators. The study also aims to study the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency rate of major grain crops, using measurements of economic efficiency for the highest return for wheat and rice. The four major sections of the study included plus references and appendices and Arabic-language summary and a summary in English, the first section benchmark review of previous studies and theoretical framework. While the second section the status quo for the economics of grain crops in Egypt through three chapters, the first chapter dealing with the production and consumption of cereal crops, the second and third chapter then addressed the current situation of wheat and rice through size and production and productivity and total production Examining the costs and net revenue and farm price for wheat and examine the size of the food gap, and self-sufficiency ratio, average per capita consumption, and then the third section productivity indicators affecting the production of wheat and rice in three section, The first chapter deals with indicators of productivity of wheat at the provincial level, and geographic distribution of major wheat varieties in terms of cultivated area, as well as irrigation efficiency of wheat through his lesson the amount of water used to grow wheat, and the relative importance of the amount of water used in Wheat cultivation, chapter II indicators of productivity for rice and wheat but we have studied the geographical distribution of rice varieties in soil and short stay long stay in the soil, and also study the amount of water used for rice cultivation, Chapter III foreign trade of wheat, where import energy intake and geographical distribution of imports of wheat and rice export energy and geographical distribution of rice exports, and section four: take a sample field study through questionnaire for wheat and rice for estimating production functions and cost in eastern provinces and the Lake and Dakahliya, Kafr El-Sheikh to estimate efficiency of agricultural economic resources for the production of wheat and rice, and section Fifth : Measuring the economic efficiency of production of wheat and rice to each separately, by estimating the efficient use of available economic resources so as to rationalize the use of these resources, reduce production costs and increase production. Through the comparison between actual and optimal quantities used and the technical and economic efficiency which leads to more efficient use of resources and thus increase production and profits for farmers. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Economic Assessment of The Efficiency of Agricultural Mechanization in Some Strategic Agricultural Crops Egyptian

Aziza Hussien Sebetan, 2018

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2018. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Study of the Impacts of re-using the Agricultural Drainage Water and its Relationship with Sustainable Development in El-Dakahlia Governorate

Sameh Moursi, 2017

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 2017. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The study aimed to identify the economic and environmental impacts of the re-use of agricultural drainage water in different types of irrigation water as, fresh water, agricultural drainage water, and mixed water on the production of the study crops at country, as, wheat, rice, sugar beet, and cotton. Also measuring economic efficiency and technical efficiency for the production of these crops. The study also aimed to measuring the multi-dimensional poverty index and measuring the total effects of the irrigation water types on the level of poverty in the irrigation area as, (education- health-living standard) Economic, environmental and social problems and their relationship to sustainable development. The study included six parts. The introduction covered the research problem, the research objectives, the research method, and the data sources. The first part, Included two chapters: the first dealt theoretical framework and; the second chapter dealt with the reference review of some previous studies. The second part contained two chapters, the first; concerned with the water resources in Egypt, Dakahlia, its uses, problems, and development, while the second chapter dealt with the development of major crops in Egypt and Dakahlia Governorate. While included Part III, on the two chapters, concerned with the first chapter in a method to select a sample study. While interested in the second chapter to measure the marginal productivity of water and diagnosis problem of functions such as multicollinearity. As included Part IV two chapters, concerned with the first chapter economic analysis of costs function for area. While interested in the second chapter, estimate the cost functions for study crops. While the fifth part included two chapters, in mind the first chapter measuring and analyzing technical efficiency in the production of study crops used for three different types of irrigation water at, Dakahlia Governorate. As the second chapter concerned with analyzing and measuring multi-dimensional poverty and the factors affecting on farm families used to varying types of irrigation water and its relationship to sustainable development in Dakahlia Governorate. The sixth part, dealt with two chapters. The first chapter dealt with the concepts related to the environmental effects of re-use of agricultural drainage water in the irrigation area. The second chapter concerned the results of the field study on the environmental effects of re-use of agricultural drainage water in the study area. The study recommended some factors that would re-use agricultural drainage water, to trying to control the negative effects of this use on the environmental. The need to expand the re-use of agricultural drainage water as a non-traditional water resource. Minimum amount of drainage water flowing to the sea and lakes, which are not less than 8 billion cubic meters annually to preserve life Natural lakes and the salt balance of the Delta lands. Expanding the use of blended irrigation water instead of agricultural drainage water. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Study of Utilizing Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides in Production of Some Vegetable Crops in Kalyoubia Governorate

Hanan Muselhy Elsaid, 2016

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Banha University, 2016. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Agricultural production is regarded, by all means, as a major pillar in the national production structure. Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides are considered important elements of Agricultural production. This study contains five chapters plus an introduction which includes the problem, objective, methodology and sources of data. The first chapter deals with the theoretical frame of the study chapter two includes the review of the related previous studies. Chapter three throw some light on sampling techniques and reasons behind the selected crops and sample size which includes 384 land holders. Chapter four includes the statistical estimates of crop production functions in the year 2014-2015 in linear and logarithmic forms. chapter five handles estimation of cost functions of production, control and economic and production efficiency for the selected crops of the study. Recommendations: According to the results, of the study following recommendations are suggested: 1) Having analyzed and explained the items of production costs for the crops under study, it was indicated that the variable costs constituted the bulk of production costs at around 90%, 88%, 82%, 81% and 86% of the total costs for fresh strawberry, frego strawberry, green peas, eggplant and tomatoes in total sample respectively. Reducing fertilizers and pesticides which represent around 50%, 67%, 83% and 75% of the total variable costs for the previous crops respectively, that was consistent with the results of estimating the elasticities of production of such crops, which came to less than one, showing inelastic supply and the optimum policy to scale up production for the crops under study. 2) Having studied the indicators of the production and economic efficiency for fresh strawberry, green peas, eggplant and tomatoes, it was indicated that the second category had a higher production and economic efficiency than the first one, which entails the first category reconsidering using production inputs in a way that increase the production and economic efficiency. 3) Having studied the indicators of the production and economic efficiency for forego strawberry, it was shown that the first category was superior to the second one in terms of most of the studied indicators, the second category had a higher standard of equality that covers the variable and total costs, which requires the second category reorganize the use of production inputs in a way to increase production and economic efficiency. 4) Controlling pesticides at the agricultural cooperatives, selling by credits, and the amount that the famer needs. Emphasing the role of agricultural extension to raise farmers ' awareness toward knowing the pesticides substitutes, and using them only if necessary and at the economic threshold. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


The Economic Efficiency for Production Honey and Beeswax in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate

Shaker El-Saied El-sharkasy, 2016

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, 2016. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ` The study aimed to identify the productivity and economic efficiency for the production of honey and wax in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, and adopted the study to achieve its goal on the style benchmark analysis and descriptive and methods of standard statistical analysis as well as the efficiency and profitability indicators, rate of growth, instability transactions, and model the partial amendment, and criteria for evaluating projects. Strong as the study on the adopted secondary data published and unpublished, as well as taking a sample from Kafr Sheikh Province amounted to 200 state in the centers Kafr El-Sheikh and Desouk by 106.94 respectively, according to the relative importance of each, it has been collecting data during agricultural year personal manner (2013 / 2014). The study included five chapters where ensure the first chapter the theoretical framework and analytical, chapter tow deals with production capacity of the apiaries and products in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, while chapter three includes: Economic and social indicators Comer by bees in Kafr El-Sheikh, while addressing chapter for: economic efficiency of jam honey bees Kafr El-Sheikh, chapter five deals with Financial performance evaluation of Apiaries honey in Kafr El-Sheikh, this next abstract one in Arabic and the other in English, and finally supplements and scientific references. The study recommends the following: (1) should be encouraged to create these projects where indicated about 76%, 32.5, 25.5%, 13% of the total sample that dissolved serves to provide additional income and leisure time and jobs is working to provide a major income for each of them in the same order. (2) The need to provide production inputs at subsidized prices where indicated about 67.5% of the total sample high production input prices. (3) must rationalize the use of pesticides to some extent where indicated about 71% of the total sample using pesticides in crop spraying, which leads to poisoning of the insect while collecting nectar which affect negatively on the production of honey. (4) Work to provide high-bee queens pure honey production where indicated about 56% of the total sample the difficulty in obtaining pure queens. (5) The need to activate the role of agricultural extension in the field of beekeeping where indicated about 84% of the total sample in the absence of the role of agricultural extension in the field of beekeeping. (6) The results of the study of technical competencies and distributional and economic stability in light and variable returns to scale, we must re-distribution of economic resources will provide the production of honey costs. (7) should be the expansion of the apiaries projects as rural development projects, where it was found from the results obtained the possibility to recover the invested capital in less than four years for all the productive capacity which underscores the economic feasibility of projects honey production. (8) Work to increase the capacity to take advantage of economies of capacity any possibility to achieve efficiencies and productivity and economic combination available to farms produce honey. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Study for Future of Food Gap in Egypt

Amina Mohammed Foad, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics), Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The problem 0f this study is the big shortage Of the local food production to meet the consumption needs for the human being. This leads to a big food Gap that Increases over time so agricultural economists try to estimates the size of this gap haping to find solution and policy to solve this problem, This study predictsthe size of the food gap up to 2022.in order to help the decision maker to decrease the differences between food production and food. Consumption and decrease the amount of food imports, The study has used both quantitative and analytical approaches represented by simple and multiple regression, coefficient of variation, ARIMA model for prediction and double logarithmic function .The study comprised three parts, the first one is the literature of review and previous studies, and the second one is the current situation for the food gap in Egypt whereas the third one is the future of the food gap in Egypt - The results of the study: - The prediction of the total food gap of the concerned five food groups in the future leads to the following results: At year 2014, the gap will be 6.147 million ton, At year 2017, the gap will be 6.496 million ton, At year 2022, the gap will be 8.103 million ton, It means that this gap increases by 5.67%, 31.82% in years2017, 2022 with respect to the year 2014. - the study has shown also the relative importance of the wheat food gap with respect to the total food gap, where it has revealed that at 2014 the wheat food gap will be 5.136 million ton at 2017 the wheat food gap will be 5.417 million ton, at 2022 the wheat food gap will be 5.668 million ton and those represent 83.55, 83,3 %, 69,94% from the total food gap in Egypt. - The Recommendations of the study: 1- Rising the rates of annual Increases in food agricultural production either for the plant side or the animal side using both horizontal and vertical expansion. 2- Follow a balanced agricultural and price policy through the guarantee price for the strategic agricultural crops, A applying the best crop pattern that satisfy the objectives of both the farmers and the economy. 3-Controlling the consumption of the food groups and commodities in general and the subsidized food commodities specifically and encourage savings and investment. 4- Reforming the quantitative subsidy policy where it encourages more consumption and finding the black markets, The importance of agricultural manufacturing where manufacturing satisfy the balance between supply and demand and limits the changes and distortions in prices. It also decreases the loss in food agricultural products. 5- Encouraging investment in agricultural wastes to obtain forages and overcome the forages gap, Governmental and rural organizations and institutions must be an effective role to raise the productions performance efficiency to the agricultural sectors. 6- Providing a base of perfect information to serve the field of production, marketing, consumption, exports and imports to the agricultural and food commodities. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


The Impact of Agricultural Finance on Agricultural Development in New Lands in the Arab Republic of Egypt

Khaled Abdelsalam Ahmed, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The problem of this study was identified in the suffering of the agricultural economic structure in the new lands from some economic problems, the most important of which is the small size of farm incomes, which is characterized by seasonality, and consequently the weakness of the savings capacity, and the lack of self-financing of most farmers, and then the problem of providing the necessary financing for agricultural development In the new lands, it is considered one of the most important problems that hinder the march of agricultural development in those areas. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the impact of agricultural financing on agricultural development in the new lands in the Arab Republic of Egypt, by shedding light on agricultural development in the new lands, highlighting the main axes of the agricultural financing policy in these lands, as well as the crop composition, and clarifying the value of production. Agricultural loans in the new lands, estimating the value of agricultural loans nationwide, analyzing the socio-economic characteristics of the study sample, in addition to trying to determine the most important factors affecting the request for agricultural loans in this sample, and estimating the economic indicators of the impact of agricultural loans on the most important crops grown in the study sample, from During the statistical analysis of the impact of agricultural loans on production costs, faddan productivity, and net faddan yield of the most important crops planted in the study sample, as well as clarifying the farmers ’dealings with the Development and Agricultural Credit Bank, and trying to enumerate and identify the most important problems facing farmers in the new lands, whether at the level of Republic, or at the level of the study sample regions. In order to achieve the aim of the study, two methods of descriptive and quantitative analysis have been used, represented in the use of the relative importance of the various social and economic variables, as well as the general temporal trend method to identify the extent of the development in agricultural loans, and the method of multi-stage regression analysis was used to identify the most important factors affecting On the request for agricultural loans in the new lands, in addition to estimating some economic indicators of the impact of agricultural loans on the most important crops planted in the sample of the study, using the method of analysis of variance, to identify the impact of agricultural loans on agricultural production costs, faddan productivity, and the net return per acre for the most important Crops grown in the new lands of the study sample in Noubaria district, Buhaira Governorate, during 2011. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


Performance efficiency of the Agricultural development and credit banks in Egypt.

Mohamed Ahmed Ali, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Monufia University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ banks in Egypt The study aims at measuring the financial and economic efficiency of the bank for development and agricultural credit (BDAC) through applying a number of financial and economic indicators. In which help policy makers and government to develop the bank and improve its performance. The results showed that the ratio of banking safety for the BDAC decreased annually by about 1% during the period 1997-2010. Concerning the element of profitability, the study showed that the rate of return on assets for the BDAC was very low compared with commercial banks and estimated by about 0.15% during the same period. The results also showed that the liquidity ratio for BDAC increased annually by about 3%. Also, the spread of the bank is greater than needed, which consider costly. The components of agricultural credit policy were examined and explained that the bank has kept on providing short loans to all governorates. The study also showed a declining trend in recovery rates for loans in the BDAC during the period 2002-2011. The different types of loans, which provided by the BDAC has been discussed during the period 1997-2011. The results showed that the total value of loans at current prices increased significantly by about 421 million LE annually, while the total value of loans at fixed prices decreased by about 514 million LE annually. The results indicated that the ratio of the right of ownership on deposits of the BDAC decreased annually by about 2.1%, whereas it increased for each of Export Development Bank of Egypt and Housing and Development Bank. Studying the rate of risk capital investment indicated that the ratio of the risk for the BDAC is the highest compared with the other three banks, which are Export Development Bank, National Bank for Development, and Housing and Development Bank. The average rate of the right of ownership/total loans estimated of about 11.5% compared with 19.4%, 18.4%, and 14.92% for the pre-mentioned other three banks respectively. Also the results showed that the rate of property right/risky assets for the BDAC was the lowest compared with the three banks of comparison during the period of study. Concerning the efficiency of the BDAC from the prospective of customers, the study sample showed that about 54% of those who got investment loans have used those loans in the establishment of new projects. It also showed that about 30% of the investment loans were less than 10 thousand LE, whereas 56% of those were less than 20 thousand LE. The sample also showed that 52% of the farmers want to continuation of dealing with the BDAC in investment loans, whereas about 34% of the sample wants to dealing in agricultural loans. The sample showed that the main reason for the unwillingness of farmers in dealing with the BDAC could be summarized as follows: - The high price of interest (31% of the study sample). - The fines and inappropriate times for repayment of loans (13%). - Mismanagement (9%). - The complexity of the procedures (1%). The results of the sample also showed that the increase in the size of the agricultural holding leads to an increase in the use of the loan for its intended purpose. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


An Economic Analysis for The Most Important Hypotheses for Food And Energy Crisis In Egypt

Safaa Elwakeel, 2015

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________ • Ph. D. in Agricultural Science: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 2015. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ The objectives of the study are: (1) to investigate the current food-security issue in Egypt, especially for the crops under study; (2) to examine the current and prospective energy problem in Egypt; (3) to inspect the past and ongoing food subsidization policies adopted in Egypt; and (4) to scrutinize the electricity and energy subsidization policies in Egypt. The study is confined to an introduction, in addition to five main chapters. The introduction includes the research problem, study objectives, and data sources. The study’s problem points to the presence of a food gap for a number of strategic crops in addition to the existence of a shortage in energy and petroleum products, especially for the last three years. The Government of Egypt has tried to diminish the adversebearings of this food gap and energy problems through adopting a number of subsidization policies. The final outcome of these policies is a burden on the Government’s budget. _______________________________________________________________________________________________


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