Master Thesis      [Total: 496 ]

An Analytical Study for Skeltol Variation in Production Cost in Some Agriculture Crops in Kafr El-Shiakh Governorate

Hala Ali Mostafa Elsherbiny, 2022


In light of the foregoing results, the following can be recommended:
1. Re-focusing on the cultivation of high-quality varieties according to the irrigation water available for the rice crop using technological methods and thus increasing the production of rice along with horizontal expansion in accordance with the government's plan for the cultivation of one and a half million acres.
2. Activating the role of agricultural extension and cooperatives in guiding farmers to the correct use of water and rationalizing its use, especially in the cultivation of the rice crop.
3. Work to improve the productivity of the wheat crop in the Kafr El-Sheikh governorate by following the different technological methods and choosing the appropriate varieties and the appropriate method of cultivation and harvesting of the wheat crop, which results in an increase in production in the governorate in particular and in Egypt in general.
4. The necessity of reviewing the agricultural policies related to cotton and rice crops, especially the legislation that allocates the areas and varieties of cotton and the way it is traded, and not to leave the cotton seed trade to the private sector.
5. The necessity of working on the price stability of the cotton crop, thus stabilizing the areas and then stabilizing production and exports.
6. Establishing a fixed marketing policy for the cotton crop through the contractual policy and announcing the guarantee prices to farmers well before planting dates so that the farmer can respond to the policy of the state represented in the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation.
7. Using agricultural research institutes for study crops to devise varieties that are resistant to climatic changes that cause a decrease in production in general in Egypt, especially in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, and also try to devise varieties of rice with less water consumption.
8. Providing production requirements in agricultural associations in order to reduce their prices in the markets, which causes an increase in production costs for the crops under study for the farmers, and then the farmers tend to plant other crops.
Master Thesis: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, 2022.

An Economic Study for Cost Production of Wheat Crop in Sharkya Governorate

Abeer Talkhan Alsbaii, 2022


• M. Sc. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 2022.
Wheat is one of the most affected agricultural and food commodities in the world markets, where it has been observed in the recent period the rise in the global prices of those commodities, and given that Egypt is one of the largest countries that import wheat, so the import of wheat has had repercussions on the Egyptian national economy, where it was required to provide the necessary foreign exchange to import the requirements of local consumption of wheat, so the state paid attention to great to find solutions to reduce the problem of the wheat gap in Egypt by studying the problems facing the state and farmers towards this problem, Egypt produces about 8183 thousand tons as an average period (2001-2020) while the cultivated area of it is about 3008 thousand acres as an average for the same period, wheat is grown in several governorates of the Arab Republic of Egypt, in, where Sharqia produces about 998 thousand tons as an average period (2001-2020) while the cultivated area of it is about 368 thousand acres on average for the same period.
The problem of the study is the fluctuation in the production of wheat crop in the province of Sharqia and the delay in its ranking in productivity at the level of the Republic despite the cultivation of large areas during the period (2016-2020), while its use of many varieties in the cultivation of the wheat crop, however, the productivity of most varieties is medium production, which shows that there are many production problems suffered by the Eastern, which necessarily requires standing on these problems and trying to develop appropriate solutions to them, and help decision makers in developing appropriate production policies that help raise the productivity of the wheat crop, and will study the production capacities, and the production costs of wheat in terms of value.
The study used the two descriptive and quantitative methods in analysing and presenting data and drawing conclusions that are useful in addressing the problem of the study, which is represented in the analysis of time series, measuring indicators of productivity efficiency of wheat as well as studying the production costs and conducting a questionnaire to study the functions of production and costs of wheat crop in Sharqia Governorate, and the study also relied on various published and unpublished secondary data, local.
The most important results of the study; Estimates of the total productive flexibility of the elements used in the function, that the farmers in the study sample survive in the first stage of the production function, which needs to use the optimal combination of production elements, which reflects the nature of the increasing yield of capacity for the four categories respectively.
The results of the estimation of the functions of production costs in the study sample showed that the civilian size of the costs amounted to about 16.3, 17.4, 17.9, 16.1, 18.1 ardab for the four categories and the total sample respectively, and that the most large volume of profits was 20.9, 20.2, 20.6, 22.9, 22.2 ardab for the four categories and the total sample also on the tarti B, and that the optimal capacity is 1.45, 3.1, 6.08, 8.3, 3.5 acres for the four categories and the total sample on the tarti B, and the total cost flexibility was 0.87, 0.83, 0.79, 0.76, 1.45 for the four categories and the total sample respectively, which shows the production of wheat farmers in the study sample in the non-economic phase according to the results of the estimate of cost functions for the four categories in the short term.

An Economic Study for Oranges in The New and Old Land in Sharkia Governorate

Lamia Mohammed Mohammed, 2022


• M. Sc. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, 2022.
Citrus cultivation comes first among the fruit crops in Egypt. As its exposure many diseases recently, led to a decrease its productivity, (which is represented the problem of the study), where the productivity decreases, and the production costs increase, so that requires studying of factors affect maximization of the farm income. The study aims to measure the economic efficiency of orange in Sharkia Governorate. The study was depended on statistical and qualitative methods and adopted on two sources of data: secondary data and primary data. One of the most important results showed that the variable costs represented less than 60% of total costs, but fixed costs represented more than 40% of total cost. Average of productivity per feddan is considered the most important indicator of economic efficiency of this study, and amounted the maximum value was about 30 tons / feddan in summer orange , however amounted its minimum value in placenta orange which was about 6.5 tons / feddan .The return of the invested pound amounted its maximum value by about 1.82 L.E in the summer orange cultivated in new lands, and amounted its minimum value by about 1.42 L.E in the placenta orange cultivated in old lands. The study recommended to maximize the net profit by access to optimal production, productivity and optimized economic production in accordance with cost of production. As well as, the importance of continuing in project of citrus improving in the Ministry of Agriculture in cooperation with the Horticultural Research Institute as it deals with many problems of citrus.

The Current and Prospective Status of Agricultural and Food Processing with Association to Food Security

Neama Abd elwahab Hassan, 2021


• M. Sc. : Department of Economics and Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 2021.
Agricultural industries are one of the important and vital solutions to protect agricultural production and agriculture from fluctuations in production and increased demand at a certain time leading to damage to both the product or farms as a result of the low prices resulting from increased supply or lack or decline in demand, as the research problem in agricultural manufacturing has all to do with the inputs and outputs of agricultural production, and therefore represents the most important pillars of investment in the agricultural sector, but investment in it differs from the rest of agricultural investment in the high degree of risk due to the fact that Its inputs are exposed to many risky variables such as weather fluctuations, production labels and rapid product damage
The study was mainly aimed at planning agricultural production policy and agricultural manufacturing policies to ensure their integration through the current position of the most important agricultural industries associated with both the inputs and outputs of the agricultural sector and determining the future position of these industries under national agricultural projects. 2- Studying the elements of the Egyptian food balance and identifying the most important goods in it and the energies achieved for it and the possibility of increasing them as well as the marketing services necessary to achieve it.

The study relied on the methods of descriptive and inference analysis in achieving the objectives of the study and the general trend equations were used to measure growth rates and forecasting, and the use of published and unpublished secondary bulletins from the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics and bulletins of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, research and studies related to the subject of the study.
The study consists of the entrance to the study and five chapters, and the entrance to the study deals with both the introduction, the research problem, the objectives of the study, the research method, data sources and the reference review of previous studies and research.
The study found the results:
- The annual growth rate of the number of animal units producing dairy from cows and buffalo decreased by about 0.6%, decreased the area of green feed and production by about 2.9, 2.1% respectively, and decreased the growth rate of the average share of the dairy-producing animal unit from the area and production of green feed at a rate of About 2.3, 2.1% respectively, the growth rate of the feed needs of animal units decreased from concentrated feed 0.6% per annum, which led to a decrease in dairy production from exporters at an annual growth rate of about 0.9%, which is equivalent to about 49 thousand tons Annually.

-The annual growth rate of the actual production capacity of the manufacture of white cheese, municipal amnesties and yogurt increased at a rate of about 13.3%, 17.3%, 7.8% respectively, and the annual growth rate of average value per ton for dairy products of white cheese, dry cheese, yogurt, municipal amuse and pasteurized yogurt at a growth rate of about 5%, 6%, 7%, 9%, 8% respectively.

-Average wheat production increased by about 8,506,000 tons and with a growth rate of about 1.2%,(2) the growth rate of wheat imports increased by about 7%, as well as the average wheat consumption increased by about 16,570 thousand tons at a growth rate of about 4%, the decline of individual consumption about 145 kg/year at a growth rate of about 2.5%, this is evidence of the success of the bread organizer, the growth rate of fine flour increased by 72%, biscuits and pasta about 9%, 1.23%, 5.3% each respectively and municipal flour averaged about 4880 thousand tons and represented about 57% of the average wheat production.

-The growth rate for the production of sugar crops increased by about 3%, and the annual average production of sugar cane and sugar beet was estimated at about 16.4, 7.5 million tons each respectively, and the annual average sugar production was about 1952 thousand tons, the average annual production of oil crops was about 527 thousand tons, and the average production of oils and industrial amuse was estimated at about 331 thousand tons and represented about 63% of the average production of oil crops.

-The annual average production of fresh vegetables, sauce making, frozen vegetables and preserved vegetables was about 14,626, 111,160,52,000 tons each, respectively, the annual average consumption of frozen and preserved sauces and vegetables was about 49.79.40 thousand tons each respectively, while for the average annual per capita consumption was about 0.64, 0.9, 0.51 kg/year each respectively. The growth rate for fresh fruit production increased by about 2.7%, and the annual average for the breeder and juice industry was about 39,231,000 tons each, respectively.

- The annual average production of red meat was about 925,000 tons, the average annual production of processed meat products was estimated at about 87,000 tons and represented about 9.4% of total red meat production, the growth rate for red meat consumption increased by about 2%, and the growth rate for the production of fresh fish and smoked fish increased by about 6%, 8.4% each respectively.

-The growth rate of the total value of industrial production at the public and private sector levels increased by about 8.3%, and the total production value of manufacturing industries amounted to about 9.5%, the average annual value added of agricultural and non-agricultural manufacturing industries at the public sector level was about EGP 6.61 billion each, respectively, while the average for the private sector was about 83.109 billion pounds each, respectively.

- The average number of workers in agricultural and non-agricultural manufacturing for the public sector was about 123,143,000, respectively, while for the private sector the average was about 385,348,000 workers respectively.

- The average production value of agricultural manufacturing divisions, namely food products, tobacco, textiles, leather, timber and paper for the public sector, was about 10.5-5.8-2.5-0.68-0.29 billion pounds each, respectively, while the private sector was about 17.8-0.13-6-0.12-2.3 billion pounds respectively, as well as the average value of the value The public sector added 2.3-5.8-2.5-0.068-0.29 billion pounds respectively, while the private sector was about 17.8-0.13-6-0.12-2.3 billion pounds on the order, the average number of employees of the agricultural manufacturing departments of the public sector was 38, 12 and 69. The private sector accounted for about 194, 3.5, 16, 4.6 and 22,000 workers, respectively.

The Role of Public, Private and Foreign Investment in Agricultural Growth in the Arab Republic of Egypt

Badria Breaka Hassan, 2020


• Master Thesis: Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 2020.
the study comes to highlight the fact that the Egyptian agricultural
sector suffers from a low return on the invested pound, which makes it unattractive to invest in it and consequently a decrease in agricultural investments, and therefore this issue is negatively reflected on the development efforts made by the state to develop the Egyptian agricultural sector, in addition to the decrease in this return It leads to a decrease in farmers ’income, which leads to a decrease in their incentive to work in this vital sector through Study the role of local and foreign agricultural investments in developing the Egyptian agricultural sector.
The study depends on descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, and multiple regression models were used in ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate the parameters of the study model in the double logarithmic, models were evaluated based on model quality indicators such as R2 and Adj. R2 The study relied on, in achieving its objectives, on the published and unpublished secondary data relevant to the subject of the study. The study covers a time series for the period 1995-2017. It's consists of four chapters; the first one dealing with an introduction to the study through an introduction about investment in Egypt, the problem of the study and its objectives, the importance of the study and the methodology of treating the topic and the justifications for its selection in addition to the research method used in it, the second chapter reviews the theoretical framework and previous studies, while the third chapter focuses on the development of the most important variables of the study That relates to investment at the level of the Egyptian agricultural sector, while the fourth chapter is concerned with studying the relationship between public and private investment in the Egyptian agricultural sector, and also addresses the role of agricultural investment, whether public, private or foreign, in economic growth And confidential Egypt. The most important results of the study can be summarized as follows Real Agricultural GDP has been used as an indicator of economic growth in the agricultural sector, the study estimate the relationship between the public, private and foreign agricultural investment, the total agricultural employment, the variable of agricultural real GDP in the previous year, and economic growth in the agricultural sector in Egypt in the long term, all independent variables includes were significance, except for the foreign investment in the agricultural sector, accordingly it can be concluded that there is an effect for both public and private agricultural investment in Real values, and total agricultural employment and economic growth in the agricultural sector in Egypt during the study period, while there is no impact of foreign investment in the agriculture sector on the agricultural GDP growth

The Economics of Production and Marketing of Flax in the Gharbia Governorate

Ehab Ahmed El-Dahlish, 2020


• M. Sc. in Agricultural Science (Agricultural Economics): Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, 2020.
The study aimed to identify the economic variables affecting the significant decline in the supply in Egypt of flax, study the marketing paths, evaluate the pricing and marketing policy, identify the production and marketing problems and obstacles facing flax growers, the first chapter dealt with the reference review, and the second chapter dealt with the current situation of flax production. The third chapter reviewed the standard estimation of the flax crop production functions, the fourth chapter included the standard estimation of the flax production costs functions, and the fifth chapter dealt with the marketing methods and evaluation of its price policy for the flax crop. and agricultural guidance, setting the factory receipt prices for the flax crop in line with the increase in production costs, integrating the expansion of the area of flax and its manufacturing units in the form of spinning and weaving that can be exported instead of being exported in the form of fibers to increase the added value of it to the national economy.




In recent years, most industrialized countries and developed countries have decreased consumption of butter and fatty products produced from buffaloes milk due to their negative effects on health aspects of serious diseases such as atherosclerosis and obesity, as well as some technological characteristics of these products when consumed such as Poor Spreadable, therefore this study aimed to modify the chemical composition of buffaloes milk fat by using crystallization to separate the fractions of fat in different temperatures. The study included the following points:
1. Improving the functional properties of Buffaloes Butter Oil Fractions obtained by Multi-Step Dry Fractionation
In this study, buffaloes butter oil was used in the preparation of milk fat fractions (high - medium - low melting point) solid and liquid in a multi-step crystallization method at temperatures 35, 25, and 15OC depending on the melting point, and obtained three solid fractions S15. S25, S35 and three liquid fractions L15, L25 and L35. Some of the physiochemical and chemical properties and oxidation stability and microscopic microstructure were studied by confocal microscope and Different Scanning Calometric (DSC) and the results obtained were as follows:
1. The higher content of L15 was 66.42% from the original L25.
2. The ratio liquid and solid fraction was 45.33:54.67, 58.88:41.12 and 66.42: 33.58 at 25, 35 and 15OC, respectively.
3. SMP was recorded 36.54OC for BO, while resulted fractions descended in order as follows: 39.76, 36.30. 32.36 ,26.83 .22.46 and 13.37?C for S35, S25, L35, L25, S15, and L15, respectively.
4. The high number of iodine (IV) for low-melting fat fraction S15 and L15 reaches (38.65 and 43.87) compared to butter oil (BO) and other fractions.
5. The concentration of cholesterol in liquid fraction was significantly (P?0.05) higher than that of solid fractions. About 95.39% of total cholesterol was recorded in L15, whereas, in S15 was 76.45%.
6. The OSI oxidation stability index of butter oil was higher compared to the obtained fractions, as it reached 9.30 hr while it reached 4.65 hr in L15.
7. The palmitic and stearic fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0) content was reached in HMF (S35) being 35.47 -14.942 mg/100gm respectively, while the oleic fatty acid content (C18:1) was the highest which ranged between 33.17-35.53 mg/100gm in S15 and L15, respectively.
8. The ratio of the omega-6 to omega-3 (?6:?3) was increased with decreasing Atherogenicity index (AI) in obtained fractions.
9. The DSC curve for butter oil (BO) showed 2 exothermic curves at low temperature 20.42OC, the first abroad curve and at 18.96OC for the second curve.
10. HMF (S35) exothermic peaks temperatures tended to rise to 33.79OC for the first curve and 4.31OC for the second curve, while

Incidence of spore-forming bacteria in certain dairy products , with emphasis on factors affecting their germination

Doaa Mousa, 2020


The present study aimed to isolate and characterize strains of spore forming bacteria from traditional Egyptian dairy products. The study also examined the effect of nutrient factors on spores germination of spore forming bacteria isolated from Egyptian dairy products . An assessment of antibiotic response of spore forming isolates recovered from Egyptian dairy products has been also conducted. Results generated throughout this study can be summarized as follows:
Part One: Prevalence of spore-formers associated with milk and dairy products processing in Mansoura city.
• Ninety samples of traditional milk and dairy products were randomly collected from local markets in Mansoura city. These samples included 30 raw milk samples, 15 UHT milk samples, 15 skim milk powder samples, 15 Ras cheese samples and 15 Domiati cheese samples
• The total viable count of raw milk samples were ranged from 10.06 to 10.66 log cfu/ml. The total viable counts of Ras cheese and Domiati cheese varied from 8.78 to 9.35 and 9.28 to 9.65 log cfu/ml, respectively. The total viable count of skim milk powder was ranged from 4.00 to 4.87 log cfu/ml.
• Out of 388 suspected isolates, 87 isolates were identified as potential aerobic spore forming bacilli. These results could present contamination of milk and dairy product plants with aerobic spore forming bacteria that exist in raw milk may resist the effect of pasteurization and other processing factors until they reached to final products. Out of 87 potential spore forming isolates 5 isolates generally regarded as facultative anaerobes and could not hydrolyze starch (Group I), 37 isolates were also regarded as facultative anaerobes and could be able to complete starch hydrolysis, these isolates are considered to be a members of (Groups II), (Group III)includes strict aerobes and has not ability to hydrolyze starch representatives of 23isolates. However 22 isolates belong to as members of (group IV) that presents strict aerobes and has ability for starch hydrolysis.
• Confirmed group 1 isolates examined the capability of these spore forming isolates to ferment citrate, mannitol and maltose in addition examining the ability of these strains to reduce nitrate and gelatin hydrolysis.
• Confirmed group 2 isolates examined the capability of these spore forming isolates to ferment lactose, hydrolyze gelatin and casein, reduce nitrate to nitrite, form sporangium bulging and grow at 50°C.
• Confirmed group 3 isolates examined the capability of these spore forming isolates to hydrolyze gelatin and urea, form sporangium bulging and grow at both 37 °C and 50°C, in addition to oxidase production.
• Confirmed group 4 isolates examined the capability of these spore forming isolates to ferment rafinose and citrate, form sporangium bulging and grow at 50°C.
• API 50 CHB is specified for the characterization of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified as B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. mycoides, B. pumilus, B. weihenstephanensis, B. thuringiensis, B. coagulans, B. sphaericus and B. licheniformis. The efficiency of API system for spore forming bacteria was approximately 80%. The API system could not was able to identify B. thuringiensis (4 isolates).


Nour Said Shams El-Din, 2020


The present work is concerned with synthesis and characterization of new transition metal complexes with three organic ligands H2L1, H2L2 and H2L3 which donated )I, II, III( respectively having N, O donar atoms.
This thesis consists of three main chapters in addition to application part as well as English abstract, Arabic abstract and references.
The first chapter embraces on introduction on the nature and importance of the ligands for synthesis the metal complexes as well as literature survey was reported.
The second chapter is experimental part which describes the methods for preparation of organic ligands and transition metal complexes. It is also represents the different chemical, experimental tools and equipments used for preparation of this work.
The third chapter comprises the results of characterization and discussion of the obtained complexes using physico-chemical methods such as elemental analysis, spectroscopic (IR, UV), molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements, thermal analysis and finally an applied part which were classified into two parts the first part, includes the biological activity where, because of the wide range of activities of pyridopyrazolopyrimidine drevatives, we have been interested on the most safe complexes of pyridopyrazolopyrimidin drevatives in this work which are donated (Ib, Ic, Id, IIa, IIIa) then study them as a new class for the anticancer therapy (i.e. anti leukemia) and also investigate the antimicrobial activities of pyridopyrazolopyrimidine drevatives (I, II, III) and of their metal complexes (Ia-If, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb) and finally the second part contains some properties of the fermented milk (Laban Rayeb) after addition of copper and cobalt chloride complexes (Ia, Id, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb) on it.

The economical Evaluation to the current and Future situation of the Nutritional Agricultural Industries

samah ibrahim, 2020


The trend towards food processing projects is considered one of the best and most appropriate economic solutions for preserving and marketing agricultural production. Mainly, the food industries include many projects that the national economy depends on and included in the industry of jams and juices, which in its content represent a recent trend that has a large marketing segment in the local markets and also for export and the proposed project is considered one of the projects that complements the economic system of agricultural or rural areas in general and areas of agricultural land reclaimed in particular. The problem of the study is limited to wide fluctuations in demand for industries based on crops Vegetables as a result of price differences that have emerged recently as a result of the rise in prices of most agricultural crops, especially in vegetable crops that are particularly damaged, and this effectively affects marketing efficiency, and the manufacturing process becomes an urgent necessity to reduce losses and damage and reduce fluctuation in prices and availability of thؤe commodity, and benefit Among the many advantages with regard to vegetable crops through the tendency to manufacture products and the rise in the level of their quality and specifications of their production in line with the needs of the local market and the requirements of the global market and the extent of their economic quality and financial value. The study aims in general to the economic and financial evaluation of the current and future situation of the agri-food industries, it was found through the development of the total area of tomatoes in Egypt during the period (2002-2017), where the minimum total area of tomatoes reached about 396 thousand acres during the year 2017 while the maximum reached About 600 thousand feddans in 2009 with an average of about 497 thousand feddans. In studying the development of the total production of tomatoes in Egypt during the period (2002-2017), as the minimum total production of tomatoes reached about 6723 thousand tons during 2017, while the maximum amount reached 10279 thousand tons in 2009 With an average of about 8,170,000 tons, tomato productivity has improved in Egypt For the period (2002-2017), where the minimum productivity of tomatoes reached about 14.9 tons during 2002, while the maximum reached about 17 tons in 2017, with an average of about 16 tons, during the period (2002-2016) where it reached the minimum revenue acres of tomato in Egypt about 6972 pounds in 2002, while about 30 547 pounds in 2011 reached an average of about 17740 pounds with standard deviation around 8696.5 pounds , the total revenue of tomato acres in Egypt during the period (2002-2016) where the minimum income for tomato acres in Egypt reached about 6972 pounds during the year 2002, while the maximum amount was about 30,547 pounds in 2011, with an average of about 17740 pounds, with a standard deviation of about 8696,5 pounds, The total costs of tomato acres developed in Egypt during the period (2002-2016), as the minimum cost of tomato acres in Egypt reached about 2981 pounds during 2002, while the maximum amount reached about 8267 pounds in 2016, with an average of about 4460 pounds, and the return of the pound invested in tomato production in Egypt during the period (2002-2016), as the minimum return on the invested fairy was reached Tomato production in Egypt was about 1.3 pounds during 2002, while the maximum level reached about 5.8 pounds in 2009