PhD Thesis      [Total: 47 ]

"Utilization OF Agricultural Waste for Treating Waste Water from Food Industries"

Sanaa Hassan, 2021

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Increase in environmental awareness at few last decades raises the interest of applying natural coagulants as an alternative to chemical ones.
In developing countries and in Egypt in particular, industrial water treatment is usually neglected. One of the reasons causes facilities avoiding treating industrial effluent is the high cost of chemicals used in treatment process. Beside high cost, chemicals used in water treatment plants are environmentally suspicious with issues related to disposal.
Coagulation and disinfection abilities of pomegranate peels aqueous extract were assessed in current work. Jar test procedures and desk well diffusion method was used in these purposes. Parameters affecting coagulation process were evaluated and optimized. Total suspended solid removal efficiency was the parameter used in evaluating treatment process effectiveness. Tests were performed using standard methods.
The results of this work revealed that pomegranate peels aqeous ex has great potentials as natural coagulant in cheese industry effluent treatment. Furthermore, sludge produced from treatment process using pomegranate peels extract was compared to that produced of using aluminum sulfate. Studying rheological properties of flocs using a Brokfield rheometer showed that the use of peels as coagulant produced sludge with less attendance for pipe blocking and slightly more compact than Aluminum sulfates sludge.
pH value of treated water using the bio coagulant remained largely unaffected after treatment contrary to that of Alum treated water.
Coagulation mechanism in both bio coagulant and alum was studied. Results revealed that in case of bio coagulant bridging and adsorption mechanism is the weighted hypothesis to explain the process. In case of alum, charge neutralization is the most likely mechanism. Bacterial inactivation was also notable, applying pomegranate peels extract on E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus and total coliform leads to formation of satisfied inhibition zone at lower concentrations compared to Alum solution.
Keywords: Extraction, Polyphenolic compounds, Pomegranate peels, Cheese processing waste water, Natural coagulants.


DEVELOPMENT OF EDIBLE ACTIVE COATINGS FROM NATURAL SOURCES FOR EXTENDING THE SHELF LIFE OF SOME PREPARED FRESH FRUITS.

Wafaa amin, 2020

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Pomegranate fruit contains high content of phytochemical constituents which have many health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of pomegranate fruit parts: arils, rind and peel as sources of bioactive compounds as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to be used as an active edible film. Results clearly demonstrated that peel extract (PE) had the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids (342 mg GAE /g and 82.33mg catechol /g , respectively) followed by rind extract (RE) containing 213.00 mg GAE/g and 70.50 mg catechol /g, respectively, and finally arils extract (AE) ( 108.22 mg GAE /g and 55.58 mg catechol/g, respectively).Results indicated that total anthocyanins content was concentrated in PE (15.24mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g) and AE (11.04 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g), while RE had the lowest value (6.51 mg Cynidian-3-glycoside/g). Peel extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity followed by RE and were significantly higher than that of AE. These results were confirmed with the DPPH and ABTS+ assays. Consequently, PE followed by RE had higher antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic strains than AE and can be used as natural preservative for food. Peel extract and RE were incorporated into pectin film at concentrations 7.5 and 15 mg/ml to develop an active edible film. Pectin film without the tested fruit parts extract was used as the control film. The obtained results revealed that these extracts caused an improvement in the barrier properties, mechanical properties and successfully developed and considered as an active edible film with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Based on our results, pectin edible coatings based PE can be used for extending the shelf life of fresh cut apple and mango fruits by delaying microbial spoilage and improve fruit quality.


BIOPRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID FROM AGRO INDUSTRIAL WASTES.

Eman Yousef, 2020

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Bio-production of lactic acid using microorganisms is promising natural processing, particularly, lactic acid production from industrial wastes such as voluble by-products of dairy industries as well as molasses which is by-product of the sugar manufacturing process. The aim of the present work was to produce LA using different known strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolation of LAB from salted whey capable of growing on high salt concentration and enhancement production of LA by the obtained strains using immobilization technique in repeated batch fermentation process. Factors affecting lactic acid production yield were studied during fermentation process of whey permeate, salted cheese whey and their mixtures using different known strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Optimum conditions for production of lactic acid were mixture of salted whey and whey permeate (1:1), contained 5% sugar, 3% salt and 0.5% calcium carbonate during static state fermentation at 37°C to give 27-38 g/l with efficiency ranged between 60- 80%. L. casei and L .rhamnosus B-445 were the most efficient strains. Seventy four strains of LAB were isolated from salted cheese whey and examined its ability to produce lactic acid. The most efficient nine isolates were biochemically and molecular identified as Enterococcus faecalis– 30, Enterococcus faecium -57, three strains (Enterococcus faecalis–53, 54 and 58), three strains (Enterococcus faecalis –48, 51 and 65) and Enterococcus hirae-68. Production of LA decreased with increasing of sugar concentration, where better sugar concentrations was 5 followed by 10% for production of LA from molasses. Enterococcus faecalis-58, Enterococcus hirae-68, mixture of them and L. casei were immobilized by sodium alginate 2% entrapped cells. Repeated batch used for LA production by immobilized Enterococcus faecalis-58, Enterococcus hirae-68, mixture of them and L. casei cells under optimum conditions. Results indicated that: The best bacterial strain was Enterococcus faecalis 58 which gave maximum LA production and yield 36.95 g/l and 81% respectively after 36 h of incubation period using medium containing 5% sugar concentration. Sodium alginate immobilized cells exhibited good mechanical strength during repetitive fermentations and could be used in repetitive batch cultures for more than 126 days.

Key words: lactic acid bacteria, whey permeate, salted whey, molasses, batch and
repeated batch fermentation, immobilization.


Biological Studies on the Interaction between some Available Drugs and Nutrients

azza Bakry hamza, 2019

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The present study investigated the interaction between some of foods (beef liver, milk full cream powder and tomatoes) which rich in iron, calcium and Vit.C respectively and flumox as an antibiotic by effecting on the blood glucose level, some physiological parameters as liver functions, kidney functions, histological properties of liver and kidney in rats. Forty five albino rats were divided into 5 groups, the first as a control negative group, the positive control group which received flumox .While, the other group fed basal diet with 10% beef liver, milk full cream powder and tomatoes with antibiotic source. At the end of experiment, body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency ratios were calculated. Also, fasting blood glucose, creatinine, serum urea, (AST) and (ALT) were determined. From the results, it could be noticed that, the full cream powder milk contained the higher protein, fat and ash while fresh tomatoes contained higher carbohydrate and fiber. Beef liver had 7.8mg of Iron and 25mg vit C but It had lowest in calcium while milk had highest content of calcium 930 mg but had lowest in Iron and Vit C 0.40mg and 0 mg, respectively. Body weight gain was significantly decreased in flumox group (positive group) but increased in groups fed on liver and tomato juice. There is no significant with liver, kidney and spleen weight as compared with both controls. There were significant between G4 and G5 with the others for GPT. The resulted revealed that there are no significant changes between G4 and G5 for urea level.

Key words: - Beef liver, milk full cream powder, tomatoes,
Biochemical analysis , flumox, antibiotic


استخدام بعض مخلفات النباتات والأعشاب لإنتاج مخبوزات وظيفية ودراسة تأثيرها ضد السمية الكبدية فى الجرذان

Mohammed Abo El naga, 2019

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The present study was undertaken to analyze the chemical composition, bioactive components, function properties and antioxidant activity of purslane and fig leaves powder and studies the effect of their extracts on diclofenac-sodium induced hepatotoxicity in rats via determination of biochemical parameters and their powders for productions function health bakery products. The obtained results showed that, proximate composition of purslane and fig leaves powder had revealed the highest amount of crude protein and crude fiber and the ascorbic acid of purslane and fig leaves powder were 108.7 and 143 mg/100g, respectively. The total phenolic contents in the purslane and fig leaves powder were 129.1 and 169.6mgGAE/100g, respectively while total flavonoids content was 156.8 and 613.6mg Rutin/100g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of purslane and fig leaves powder were 79.22 and 85% for DPPH scavenged, respectively and 31.57 and 32.84 mgGAE/100g for FRAP, respectively. The results of HPLC for phenolic and flavonoid compounds in purslane and fig leaves powder were showed that 13 phenolic and flavonoid compounds were detected. The adult male rats were pretreated orally with purslane (PuE) and fig leaves (FlE) extracts at a dose of 10ml/kg and 200mg/kg body weight, respectively for 14 days. Co-treatment of diclofenac-sodium (DS) 16mg/kg body weight was given orally for 7days. The present results demonstrated that the treatment with PuE and FlE combination with DS induced a marked improvement in the studied parameters. Plasma liver enzyme activities as well as bilirubin levels were increased in the groups receiving diclofenac only or in combination as compared with control group. However, the administration of PuE and FlE ameliorated DS induced hepatotoxicity by improving antioxidant status, decreasing inflammation, lowering TBARS and weakening the adverse effect of diclofenac on hepatic tissues. Liver injury was confirmed by the histological changes. In general, the replacement levels of purslane powder affected the diameter, thickness, spread ratio, weight, volume and specific volume of biscuits. Substitution levels influenced all sensory parameters significantly except the odour. The substitution of purslane to biscuits made biscuits harder but still accepted. The spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of fig leaves powder. Also, the colour was decreased significantly by the addition of fig leaves powder at all levels when compared to control. There was a significant increase in the height of cakes which substituted with purslane at all treatment when compared to control. When comparing 10%P and 20%P substitutions to the control, panelists did not find any significant difference (P<0.05) in colour, taste, texture, odour and overall acceptability. On the other hand, the measured hardness of samples showed that the cake became soft with increasing levels of purslane powder. The height of the cake samples substituted with 5%F and 7.5%F increased significantly (p ? 0.05) as compared to control. Also, the colour was not affected by the addition of fig leaves powder at levels of 5%F and 7.5%F substitution. In the texture profile analysis, the measured hardness of samples showed that the cake became harder with increasing levels of fig leaves powder particularly at replacement level of 7.5%F than 5%F and 10%F. It can be concluded that the purslane and fig leaves powder contains a wide range of bioactive component such as pheolics, flavonoids, and vitamins with high antioxidant activity. The enhancement of antioxidants and promising activity against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity may a result for the effect of PuE and FlE. Biscuits and cake of acceptable quality can be prepared, by substituting wheat flour with up to 20% purslane powder and 7.5% fig leaves powder.


BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FLAXSEED IN PRODUCTION OF SOME FUNCTIONAL FOODS.

Reham Abd Elsalam, 2019

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the physical, functional, chemical properties, phytochemical profiles as well as antioxidant and anticancer activities of different flaxseed flours i.e. full fat flaxseed flour (FFF), roasted full fat flaxseed flour (RFFF), defatted flaxseed flour (DFF) and roasted defatted flaxseed flour (RDFF). The characterization of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) from defatted flaxseed was studied. The incorporation of FPI into pasta (at 2.5, 5 and 7% of wheat flour) was assessed relative to pasta control (100% wheat flour). Increasing the percentage of FPI up to 7.5% decreased the overall acceptability scores compared with other pasta samples. The quality and technological characteristics of the flaxseed crackers as partially flour substitution and flaxseed brownies as partially shortening substitution (10, 20 and 30% substitution level) were also evaluated. Results revealed that flaxseed flours especially RFFF and RDFF have a good nutritional and functional profiles. Roasting process was found to be an effective method for reducing anti-nutrients content such as (phytic acid, cyanogenic glycoside and trypsin inhibitors) and improved protein digestability. Results showed that RDFF had significantly the highest content of phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect of lignans ethanolic extracts from defatted and roasted defatted flaxseed on colon carcinoma cell line (HCT) and breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) increased as the extract concentration increased. The RDFF had strong anticancer activity toward two tested cell lines (MCF-7 and HCT) with IC50 value (29.0 and 31.4 µg/ml, respectively). Substitution with RDFF increased significantly the content of protein, fat, ash

and fiber contents of the crackers relative to control. The microbial load obtained of produced flaxseed were under the acceptable limits for a period of 3 months from the date of manufacture. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of flaxseed crackers tended to increase significantly with increasing the addition level of flaxseed and decreased with increasing storage period at ambient temperature (25±5°C) when compared to control sample. Overall acceptability of fat-replaced brownies samples was decreased by increasing level substitution with RFFF relative to control. Results indicated that linolenic acid percentage (omega-3) was increased via increasing flaxseed level of brownies samples. The obtained microbial load of produced brownies was in acceptable value range without any adverse effect on the qualities of the brownies for a storage period up to 3 weeks at room temperature (25±5°C). Concerning fat quality parameters, it could be noticed that peroxide value increased gradually up to the end of the storage period in all brownies samples. In addition, mean score values for thiobarbituric acid (TBA) showed gradually increased in values for both control and flaxseed brownies samples with increasing storage period up to 3 weeks. TBA values increased with shortening substitution level was increased and the increase was considerably higher in brownies prepared with 30 % RFFF of shortening substitution.


BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FLAXSEED IN PRODUCTION OF SOME FUNCTIONAL FOODS

Reham Abd Elsalam, 2019

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the physical, functional, chemical properties, phytochemical profiles as well as antioxidant and anticancer activities of different flaxseed flours i.e. full fat flaxseed flour (FFF), roasted full fat flaxseed flour (RFFF), defatted flaxseed flour (DFF) and roasted defatted flaxseed flour (RDFF). The characterization of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) from defatted flaxseed was studied. The incorporation of FPI into pasta (at 2.5, 5 and 7% of wheat flour) was assessed relative to pasta control (100% wheat flour). Increasing the percentage of FPI up to 7.5% decreased the overall acceptability scores compared with other pasta samples. The quality and technological characteristics of the flaxseed crackers as partially flour substitution and flaxseed brownies as partially shortening substitution (10, 20 and 30% substitution level) were also evaluated. Results revealed that flaxseed flours especially RFFF and RDFF have a good nutritional and functional profiles. Roasting process was found to be an effective method for reducing anti-nutrients content such as (phytic acid, cyanogenic glycoside and trypsin inhibitors) and improved protein digestability. Results showed that RDFF had significantly the highest content of phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect of lignans ethanolic extracts from defatted and roasted defatted flaxseed on colon carcinoma cell line (HCT) and breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) increased as the extract concentration increased. The RDFF had strong anticancer activity toward two tested cell lines (MCF-7 and HCT) with IC50 value (29.0 and 31.4 µg/ml, respectively). Substitution with RDFF increased significantly the content of protein, fat, ash

and fiber contents of the crackers relative to control. The microbial load obtained of produced flaxseed were under the acceptable limits for a period of 3 months from the date of manufacture. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of flaxseed crackers tended to increase significantly with increasing the addition level of flaxseed and decreased with increasing storage period at ambient temperature (25±5°C) when compared to control sample. Overall acceptability of fat-replaced brownies samples was decreased by increasing level substitution with RFFF relative to control. Results indicated that linolenic acid percentage (omega-3) was increased via increasing flaxseed level of brownies samples. The obtained microbial load of produced brownies was in acceptable value range without any adverse effect on the qualities of the brownies for a storage period up to 3 weeks at room temperature (25±5°C). Concerning fat quality parameters, it could be noticed that peroxide value increased gradually up to the end of the storage period in all brownies samples. In addition, mean score values for thiobarbituric acid (TBA) showed gradually increased in values for both control and flaxseed brownies samples with increasing storage period up to 3 weeks. TBA values increased with shortening substitution level was increased and the increase was considerably higher in brownies prepared with 30 % RFFF of shortening substitution.


Utilization of some cereals by-products in Food Industry .

Ahamed Ali, Mona Mohamed aly, 2019

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PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN MILK AND SOME MILK PRODUCTS IN EGYPT AND SOUTH AFRICA

Hamdy El -Taweel, mostafa Zedan, 2019

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This study aims to identify the residues of pesticides used in Egypt in both raw buffaloes' milk and some of its products, and compare it with the safe limit (maximum) allowed in food. The study was completed as follows: 135 samples of fresh buffalo milk, yoghurt, soft white cheese, fresh cream and butter were collected 300 grams each from local markets in three months: January, February and March 2016 from three governorates (Giza, Cairo and Qalioubia) Three samples were collected from Giza Governorate (Faisal, Al-Ayyat and Bulaq), and samples from Cairo Governorate were collected from three places (Abdin, Old Egypt and Bab El Louk). Chevrolet and Whole Street) All samples were placed in Aki Q plastic boxes and transported in Styrofoam under the cooling and stored at -20 ° C The results of the analysis pointed that the contamination by pesticide residues in the samples under study was within the permissible limits except for some samples. It is recommended that pesticide residue be found in the permitted quantities in the most samples. Therefore, it is advisable to use pesticides within the permissible limits, as well as to leave a period of grace for the decomposition of pesticide residues in the plants used as feed before the farm animals are fed to avoid milk. That the heat and primates do not cause the complete decomposition of pesticide residues so that the residues in the ratios of the survey to address them so as not to affect human health.


Studies on moringa (Moringa oleifera) seeds and their uses in human nutritionز

Awatif Ismael, 2019

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This study was directed to evaluate the seeds and different parts of moringa (Moringa oleifera) for chemical composition, minerals, amino acids and phenolic compounds. Also, Evaluating the total phenolic compounds and antioxidative activity (DPPH and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay) of the total extractable compounds from different parts of moringa using several solvents.
Identification of the volatile compounds from different parts of moringa and oil. Enhancement of the oxidative stability of cactus oil by blending with Moringa oleifera oil. Studying the effect of germination and roasting of Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina seeds on fatty acids, tocopherols and triglycerides composition.
From the obtained results, we can conclude that moringa seeds are good source of vegetable oils as well as it contains valuable amounts of minerals especially the leaves. Moringa seeds oil have high nutritional value, hence, it contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids especially oleic acid and low in linoleic acid. It appears that blending of high linoleic oils, such as cactus oil, with moringa can increase the oil stability during storage at 50?C for 4 weeks.
Finally, it can be recommended to use moringa seeds oil as well as vegetable edible oils and the polyphenols as natural antioxidants.


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