PhD Thesis      [Total: 30 ]

Chemical and biological evaluation of deterpenated orange and mandarin oils

Rushdy Ahmed, 2015

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Orange (Citrus sinensis) and mandarin (Citrus reteculata) peels were used to extract their essential oils by cold pressing method. The chemical composition of both oils were identified and determined by GC/MS. Limonene (89.65%) in orange and (65.57%) in mandarin, is a main component of monoterpenes, followed by γ-terpienene (23.07%) in mandarin. Octanal (1.47%) in orange oil and linalool (1.5%) in mandarin oil are abundant oxygenated component determined. Deterpenation of both oils was applied using three different techniques to remove hydrocarbon monoterpenes and thus, increased oxygenated components, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and oxides relatively. Preparative silica gel adsorption chromatography at two ratios (1:7.5 and 1:15 oil to silica) was used for removing terpenes from orange and mandarin oils. The higher level of oxygenated components in deterpenated oil, the lower percentage of oil recovery. Concentration by controlled vacuum distillation techniques, 10 mm Hg and 62 ºC, was applied to produce folded orange oils (5F.O.O and 10F.O.O) and folded mandarin oil (5F.M.O).The higher fold number the lower the monoterpenes content. Limonene recorded 67.88% in (10F.O.O) and 52.95% in (5F.M.O). γ–terpinene as monoterpene did not affect by distillation of mandarin oil. Alcohols increased and recorded 15.67% while, aldehydes represented 10.67% in ten fold orange oils. The main esters as methyl N-methyl anthranilate and geranyl acetate increased in (5F.M.O) than that found in original mandarin oil. The deterpenation of orange oil by diluted ethyl alcohol at 70% (1:5) and 80% (1:5) could be considered as the most effective concentration in comparison with the other concentrates for obtaining deterpenated oils containing the highest amount of aroma oxygenated compounds. Stored folded oils characterized by decrement in limonene, lost in aldehyde aroma components and increased in oxidation products such as cis-p-mentha 2,1 dienol and trans carveol. Losing limonene during storage in original oils led to increase in specific gravity, refractive index, evaporation residue and acid value. The improvement of antioxidant capacity of concentrates (5F.O.O, 10F.O.O and 5F.M.O) and deterpenated fractions (F3 and F5) than their original oils were related with increasing minor components by deterpenation such as carvacrol, geraniol, α-terpineol and linalool or related with other terpene component γ-terpenene in (5F.M.O). Deterpenated and concenterated orange oils were more effective on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus than original oils because the increment of oxygenated monoterpenes by deterpenation as well as synergistic interaction of other constituents. The efficiency of folded oils in hypocholestrolimic rats did not affected by decreasing of limonene by deterpenation. The original and folded oils were used as a flavoring agent in the formulation of chewing gum.


A STUDY ON KINETICS OF DRYING PROCESS OF SOME FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Ahmed El mashd, 2009

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This study aimed to establish the influence of drying condition such as pretreatments, the sample thickness, the air temperature and type of drier (oven or solar) on the drying constants for fig & banana fruits and onion & garlic vegetables. The kinetic parameters for the color change during drying using Hunter L-, a-, b- values, chroma, Hue, total color change (ΔΕ) values were determined. Zero-order and first-order model were used to calculate K0 (zero-order kinetic constant) and K (first-order kinetic constant). The moisture sorption isotherms of fig and banana fruits at room temperature at 25°C was done. Henderson, Chung&Pfost, Halsey, Smith and BET model equations were applied to fit experimental moisture sorption data for water activity ranged from 0.11 to 0.85.


ُEffect of Some Processing treatments on Chemical Constituents of Some Edible Mushroom

2009

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Mushrooms are the edible fungi of commercial importance. It has good nutritional, medicinal value and it was excellent source of protein and was rich of vitamins. Two samples of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and (Pleurotus ostreatus) were used. This Study aim to examine the effects of radiation, blanching, Soaking and manufacturing processes (canning, drying) on chemical constituents and some enzyme activities of mushrooms. Treatment with irradiation. Extending shelf life from 25:30 days, and decreased the content of CP, TSS, but the vit C was increased. There was no remarkable change in TPCs, TFs, but there were significant increases in the TCs. the activity of all enzymes in irradiated samples was lower than in non- irradiated samples. Blanching treatment of preheated (sun, oven dried), soaking and canning caused slight decreases In CP, TSS, TCs and a great loss for vit C, TPCs, TFs. While drying methods caused increase in TPCs and TFs. All treatments caused reduction on the activity of (PPO, tyrosinase, and peroxidase) in both two species. But dehydration and canning caused slight differences in the activity of PAL and Proteases. Agaricus bisporus contained the highest amount of free amino acids, and free sugars whereas Pleurotus ostreatus contained the lowest amount. γ-amino butyric acid was found in both samples. There were losses of contents of free sugars caused in all different treatments.


A STUDY ON KINETICS OF DRYING PROCESS OF SOME FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Ahmed El mashd, 2009

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This study aimed to establish the influence of drying condition such as pretreatments, the sample thickness, the air temperature and type of drier (oven or solar) on the drying constants for fig & banana fruits and onion & garlic vegetables. The kinetic parameters for the color change during drying using Hunter L-, a-, b- values, chroma, Hue, total color change (ΔΕ) values were determined. Zero-order and first-order model were used to calculate K0 (zero-order kinetic constant) and K (first-order kinetic constant). The moisture sorption isotherms of fig and banana fruits at room temperature at 25°C was done. Henderson, Chung&Pfost, Halsey, Smith and BET model equations were applied to fit experimental moisture sorption data for water activity ranged from 0.11 to 0.85.


Effect of Some Processing Treatments on Chemical Constituents of Some Edible Mushroom

mohamed Gad, 2009

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Mushrooms are the edible fungi of commercial importance. It has good nutritional, medicinal value and it was excellent source of protein and was rich of vitamins. Two samples of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and (Pleurotus ostreatus) were used. This Study aim to examine the effects of radiation, blanching, Soaking and manufacturing processes (canning, drying) on chemical constituents and some enzyme activities of mushrooms. Treatment with irradiation. Extending shelf life from 25:30 days, and decreased the content of CP, TSS, but the vit C was increased. There was no remarkable change in TPCs, TFs, but there were significant increases in the TCs. the activity of all enzymes in irradiated samples was lower than in non- irradiated samples. Blanching treatment of preheated (sun, oven dried), soaking and canning caused slight decreases In CP, TSS, TCs and a great loss for vit C, TPCs, TFs. While drying methods caused increase in TPCs and TFs. All treatments caused reduction on the activity of (PPO, tyrosinase, and peroxidase) in both two species. But dehydration and canning caused slight differences in the activity of PAL and Proteases. Agaricus bisporus contained the highest amount of free amino acids, and free sugars whereas Pleurotus ostreatus contained the lowest amount. γ-amino butyric acid was found in both samples. There were losses of contents of free sugars caused in all different treatments.


Efficiency of Licorice and Mustard Extracts as Anticancer, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Agents

Nadia Saleh, Heba Barakat, 2009

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of licorice and mustard extracts as antioxidant, anticancer and its cytotoxicity on liver, breast and colon. Furthermore study the hypocholesterolemic effect of licorice and mustard extracts.Results indicatid that: oil and protein contents were higher in mustard whereas fiber content was higher in licorice. This study illustrated that K and Zn were present at a high level in mustard seeds while, Ca was present at a high level in licorice root. Separation and estimation of polyphenols and flavonoids were carried out. Results indicated that licorice ethanolic extract contained Kaempherol, Cinnamic acid, Apigenin, Myrictin, Coumarin and Rutin, while, mustard ethanolic extract contained Kaempherol, Quercetin and Cinnamic acid. Total phenols, total chlorophylls, tannins and saponin contents were higher in licorice than in mustard. The ethanol extract of licorice was more effective than its water extract and mustard as natural source of antioxidants, in all evaluation methods used (microsomes, DPPH, Deoxyribose, and oxidative rancidity). Ethanolic extract of mustard was more effective than licorice as antimicrobial material against all investigated microbes (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomycess servicea) using zone inhibition method at 300, 600 and 900 mg/ml. Both of licorice and mustard ethanolic extracts (500-1000 mg/kg body weight) decreased significantly serum cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipids and LDL of rats with high cholesterol level (254.6 mg/dl). On the other hand, feeding rats with high cholesterol level on a basal diet and licorice or mustard ethanolic extract decreased their liver function parameters (ALT and AST ) Moreover, treated rats (with high cholesterol level) with licorice extract at 1000 mg/kg improved significantly their kidney function parameters (uric acid,urea and creatinine). Licorice had a higher activity against liver cancer (HEPG2) (IC50= 16.1 µg/ml). While mustard had a good activity against breast cancer (MCF 7) (IC50= 19.5 µg/ml) than licorice. Keywords: licorice, mustard, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cholesterol, anticancer.


Effect of supplementation of wheat flour by soymilk on chemical, biological and sensory evaluation of produced biscuit.

zeinab Shebib, 2008

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ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat flour (72% ext.) by 15% soymilk powder (SMP) or fermented soymilk powder (FSMP) on the quality of the produced biscuit and the effect of such replacement on osteoporosis status of ovariectomized female rats. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Chemical composition of biscuits of 15% soymilk or fermented soymilk powders lead to an increase in protein, fat, ash and mineral content. Isoflavones contents in biscuits was also determined.The results showed that biscuit contained 15% fermented soymilk powder is the richest product of daidzein and genistein than biscuit contained 15% soymilk powder.Sensory evaluation results indicated that addition of soymilk or fermented soymilk powders at 15% could be recommended for production of biscuits. Results of the biological experiment showed that biscuits contained 15% soymilk or fermented soymilk powders caused no significant differences in serum ca and p concentrations in both of ovariectomized and normal rats. On contrary, serum alkaline phosphates activity was higher in ovariectomized rats fed on diets containing SM and FSM powders compared with those found in rats fed on a basal diet or control biscuit. The femoral bone lengths were also taller in ovariectomized rats fed on diets containing SM and FSM powders than normal rats taking the same diets. Breaking forces of rats femurs were slightly higher in normal rats and ovariectomized rats fed diets containing soymilk and fermented soymilk powders compared with femurs of those fed on the diet control biscuit. On the other hand, bone density and bone mineral density values were elevated in ovariectomized rats fed on the tested diets (SM and FSM powders) compared with those fed on a basal diet or control biscuit.


Biochemical Impacts of Micronutrients on Special Patient Status

2008

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this work has been carried out to investigate effects of chromium picolonat (Crpic), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and iron sulfate (FeSO4) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ten groups of rats each contains 6 albino rats were used. In group one, untreated rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was developed in the other nine groups by injecting the rats with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg /kg). The results of study indicate that Crpic and zinc supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and pathophysiogical parameters of an insulin resistant rat model. Supplementation of diet with chromium, zinc and iron improved liver function, kidney function, serum chromium, food efficiency and hemoglobin concentration. Thus, based on the results of this investigation it could be recommended that those three metals could be added to the diet of T2DM patients and patients suffering from anemia.


Biochemical impact of micronutrients on special patient status.

2008

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this work has been carried out to investigate effects of chromium picolonat (Crpic), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and iron sulfate (FeSO4) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ten groups of rats each contains 6 albino rats were used. In group one, untreated rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was developed in the other nine groups by injecting the rats with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg /kg). The results of study indicate that Crpic and zinc supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and pathophysiogical parameters of an insulin resistant rat model. Supplementation of diet with chromium, zinc and iron improved liver function, kidney function, serum chromium, food efficiency and hemoglobin concentration. Thus, based on the results of this investigation it could be recommended that those three metals could be added to the diet of T2DM patients and patients suffering from anemia.


Study on Manufacture of Some Naturally Films Used in Coating and Packaging in Foods

Hosam El-Din Abd El-Gawed, 2008

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Abstract: This study aim to increase the benefit of the sesame (Sesamum indicum, L.) seed oilseed cake (SOC) produced from the sesame oil processing and the sesame sieved waste produced from white tahini processing (SSWTP) with/without defatted soybean flour (DSF) (1:1 w/w) by partially substituted of wheat flour (WF) (72% extraction) to produce high nutritive bakery products (wheat bread, biscuits and pizza). Raw materials were chemical analyzed and microbiological evaluation. The effect of fortification products on nutritional and organoleptic characteristics were measured as well as evaluation of the best ratio of this fortified products to determine biological and biochemical effects on diabetic rats. The results showed that both of these wastes and (DSF) had not any aflatoxins. (SOC) was the highest value of protein and ash (29.85% and 11.58%, respectively) while (SSWTP) contained high value of ether extract and protein (43.54% and 29.20%, respectively). Results indicated the ability utilization from these wastes with (DSF) for producing functional foods.


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