Master Thesis      [Total: 12 ]

Effects of some additives on temperature degree and some biological parameters during composting of rice straw.

Amal Abdel-Satar, Gamal Mohamed Elsayed, 2014

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Ten compost treatments were prepared by mixing rice straw with some different addi¬tives. Treatments were arranged in piles ac¬cording to the component of each pile. Initial temperature in all treatments at zero time was 21°C. During the following days considerable variations in temperature were observed in different treatments. The 10 treatments exhib¬ited two groups according to temperature's demeanor. The first group comprises the treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 which were pre¬pared without addition of cattle dung. The temperature of the mesophilic initial phase of composting process were ranged approxi¬mately from 21 to 45 °C and takes from 9 to 15 days. In the thermophilic phase the tem¬peratures were increased gradually to reach a maximum temperature ranged between 50 and 62°C. The second group comprises the treatments 7, 8, 9 and 10 which were pre¬pared by addition of cattle dung. The temper¬ature of initial mesophilic phase ware ranged from 21 to36°C and takes three days. The thermophilic phase w-?s continued from 35-40 days and the highest temperature degree was reached to 65-67°C. Variations in temperature during composting process lead to succes¬sion of different microbial communities. Dur¬ing the initial phase of composting process the counts of mesophilic microorganisms were increased. As a result of increasing temperature the counts of mesophilic organ¬isms were reduced and the counts of thermo¬philic organisms were increased. While up to the end of compost process the temperature was reduced with resultant reduction in the counts of thermophilic microorganisms and dominating the mesophilic microorganisms in the process. The total and fecal coliform as well as other pathogenic bacteria {Salmonella and Shigella) were not detected in the fin¬ished products


Effect of microbial inoculants and earthworm on microbiological and chemical characteristics of organic fertilizers produced from agricultural residues

Amal Abdel-Satar, 2014

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The aim of this study is to produce compost using rice straw as raw material. Ten treatments were prepared by adjusting the C/N ratio of the rice straw either by addition cattle dung or ammonium sulphate. The mixtures were supplemented with phosphate and potassium either in organic or inorganic forms. The effect of addition of bio-accelerator as the fungal inoculant that consisted of dual cultures of Trichoderma harzianum NRRL 13019 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium NRRL 6359 was also considered. Another set of the same 10 treatments was prepared by adding Eisenia fetida after the thermophilic phase i.e when the temperature steadily reached 30 oC. The earthworms were added to each of the plastic bin, which containing the pre-composted materials. The composting process was continued in both sets up to 16 weeks. Tea was prepared using compost and vermicompost which were produced from the best four treatments. A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, during the growth seasons of January 2011. This experiment was designed to study the effect of addition of compost, vermicompost, compost tea and vermicompost tea, produced from the best selected treatments on the growth of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The growth was measured in terms of fresh and dry weights (g / plant). The essential oil percentage, total N, P and k percentages were also determined at the end of each cut. Results were statistically analyzed. The obtained results revealed that the plants of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) which were treated with vermicompost of rice straw, supplemented with cattle dung, rock phosphate, feldspar and fungal bio-accelerator (treatment no. 7) showed their highest values of shoots fresh and dry weight, oil, N, P, K% compared with the other tested treatments. Key Words: Rice straw, Compost, Vermicompost, Compost tea, Vermicompost tea, Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, Common sage (Salvia officinalis), Bio-accelerator


Management of soil and water in salt affected soils

Nashwa El-Sheikh, 2013

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The aim of the present work was to improvement some chemical and physical properties of salt affected soils (clay soil) using organic manure “compost” and proline under deficit irrigation. Also fertilizer techniques (coating, soaking) were assessed. The investigation included two field experiments. The first experiment concerns organic fertilizers: no compost "M0", 25 m3ha-1 "M1" and 75 m3 ha-1"M2"; irrigation treatments: irrigation upon 25% available moisture depletion (AMD), 50% AMD and 75% AMD I1, I2 and I3 respectively and proline treatments: (no spray "P0" and spray with proline "2 mg L-1.” "P1", 3 sprays 20,45 and 60 days post-seeding 1200Lha-1 each).The crop was sorghum The second experiment concerns P-fertilization ordinary superphosphate “6.7%P” techniques (no P-fertilizer, broadcast (Br) on soil surface than soaking (Sk) of seeds in a P-solution and coating of seeds). Two crops were used Sorghum(Sorghum vulgare) and Sudan grass(Sorghum vulgare) sudanrnsis). Two cuts were taken from each crop, 1st 60 days post-seeding and 2nd 60 days after that. Experiments were conducted at South of Sahl El-Hosainiya Research Station, Agricultural Research Center in Sharkeia governorate. Experment1 • Yield: Irrigation I2 surpassed I1 and I3 by 22 and 17% respectively for 1st cut yields; 25 and 12% respectively for 2nd cut. Manuring increased yields by 28 and 48% by “M1" and 1"M2"; respectively for 1st cut; 33 and 51% respectively for 2nd cut. Proline caused 9% increase in each cut. Lowest was by I1M0P0 and highest was by I2M2P1; 106-111% increase by the latter over the former. • N uptake: Irrigation I2 surpassed I1 and I3 by 51and 44%, respectively for 1st cut N uptake; 31and 13% respectively for 2nd cut. Manuring increased N by 95and 159% by “M1" and 1"M2"; respectively for 1st cut; 106 and 161% respectively for 2nd cut. Proline caused 18 and 14 % increase in 1st and 2nd cut respectively. Lowest was by I1M0P0 and highest was by I2M2P1; 460-274% increase by the latter over the former. • P uptake: Irrigation I2 surpassed I1 and I3 by 115 and 34%, respectively for 1st cut P uptake; 42 and 38% respectively for 2nd cut. Manuring increased P by 201and 389% by “M1" and 1"M2"; respectively for 1st cut; 116 and 207% respectively for 2nd cut. Proline caused 69 and 50% increase in 1st and 2nd cut respectively. Lowest was by I1M0P0 and highest was by I2M2P1; 532-503% increase by the latter over the former. • K uptake: Irrigation I2 surpassed I1 and I3 by 31 and 32%, respectively for 1st cut N uptake; 33 and 23% respectively for 2nd cut. Manuring increased K by 145 and 235 % by “M1" and 1"M2"; respectively for 1st cut; 158 and 232% respectively for 2nd cut. Proline caused 25 and 20 % increase in 1st and 2nd cut respectively. Lowest was by I1M0P0 and highest was by I2M2P1; 542-475% increase by the latter over the former. • Content of soil organic matter was increased by 18.4% by M2. • Available N, P and K in the soil after at end of experiment were greater in treatments receiving manure irrigated upon depletion of 50% available water. • Soil bulk density significantly decreased with application of organic manure. • Total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, field capacity and available water significantly increased as a result of organic manure application. • Yield of fresh and dry plant cuts(two cuts) in were highest with irrigation upon 50% depletion of water at 50%, (Organic manure at 75 m3ha-) and Proline spray. • N, P and K-uptake increased with highest values begin obtained from treatments of I2 M2 P1. Experment2 • Forage yield of Sudan grass and Sorghum increased upon application of P. Ranges of increase for fresh yield 1st cut were 26% given by Sk of Sudan grass and 112% for Sorghum. Second cut increases were 26 and 162%. Coating gave the highest yield, and increases were 82.3, 64.6 and 48.3 for 1st forage cut of Ct, Br and Sk respectively. • P-uptake by Sudan grass and Sorghum with coating showed highest increase followed by broadcast than by soaking with averages of 150, 113 and 86% for Ct, Sk and Br respectively for 1st cut. • P-Available in soil was 1.90 and 1.67 mg kg-1 under Sudan grass and Sorghum plants, respectively, whereas the broadcast technique was superior to the other techniques (soaking and coating).


Effects of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) on yield and uptake of lead and cadmium by onion

Seham Mohamed Mostafa, 2004

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Effect of some soil conditioners and growth regulators on water consumptive use and plant growth in some desert soils

Abdullah Abdel-Fattah, 2004

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The current investigation aims to study the effect of some soil conditioners and growth regulators application on water consumptive use and plant growth in some desert soils .Wheat plant, was cultivated as an indicator plant . A pot experiment was carried out using surface soils collected from two locations; the first location: from Ismalia Research Station to represent sandy soil, the second location from Nubaria Research Station to represent sandy clay loam soil. Both soils were divided into two groups; the first group was conditioned by filter mud (natural), and the second was conditioned by acryhop GH-2 (synthetic). Filter mud was applied at the rate of 0.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 ton/fed; whereas Acryhop GH-2 was applied at the rate of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15%. Soil moisture content was adjusted gravimetrically at field capacity using tap water through the period of the experiment. Every treatment was divided into three sub groups after one month of wheat planting; the first sub group had received foliar spray of 100 ppm gibbrellic acid, the second received foliar spray of 1000 ppm cycocel; while the third received desalination water. The obtained results cleared that adding any of filter mud or acryhop to the soils increased total porosity, water holding pores, available water, C.E.C, electrical conductivity and availability of nutrients. On the other hand, soil bulk density and soil reaction were decreased. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity and quick drainable pores were decreased while the fine capillary pores were increased in sandy soil, whereas in sandy clay loam the opposite trend was found. As a result of improving soil physical and chemical properties, the grain yield of wheat was increased. Concerning the effect of growth regulators, results revealed that GA3 had improved water use efficiency, total and grain biomass; whereas CCC had opposite trend. 1- Applications of any of filter mud or acryhop had improved physical, chemical and consequently increased soil productivity. 2- The response to soil conditioners in sandy soil was greater than in sandy clay loam soil. 3- Application of GA3 had improved wheat yield and water use efficiency; filter mud was more effective in this respect 4- Application of CCC is needed when there is a shortage of water; acryhop is effective in this respect


Studies on fertility evaluation of kalubia soils using diagnosis and recommendation integrated system

Abd El-Hady Abd El-Hady, 2004

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To determine the reference norms for N, P and K for wheat crop, 1000 plant samples were collected at shooting stage from wheat fields distributed in seven countries of Kalubia Governorate. Plant samples were prepared for N, P and K analysis. The corresponding wheat grain yield for each field was determined diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) was applied to soil fertility for the tested nutrients N, P and K. Expressions of N/P, N/K and K/P were used for calculating n/p, n/k and k/p norms for the high yielding population > 2.4 ton/fed. obtained norms were: n/p 13.93, n/k 1.4 and k/p 10.25 values of calculating norms represent the local values. These local values were comparing with the international values obtained by Sumner (1980). By means of foliar analysis and DRIS norms N, P and K in wheat plants balance could be assessed. DRIS is becoming an essential practice for efficient use of fertilizers. Selected plant samples from the low yielding population in each county were tested for N/P, N/K and K/P using the obtained DRIS norms and the degree of limitation was determined


Selectivity coefficients of some cations in soil and some clay minerals

Gamal Osman Alshiekh, 2002

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Comparative study of some methods for nutrient extraction in some egyptian soils

Khaled Abd El-Lattif, 2002

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This work aims to study the evaluation of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn availability in some Egyptian soils and test the suitability of some methods, which are used to extract these nutrients under Egyptian soils conditions. Also, stepwise regression analysis was run to define the indigenous soil parameters affect vigorously on the amounts of available P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn extracted by the different extractants used. Materials and methods: To carry out this study, 5 methods were chosen for extracting available phosphorus and potassium for the studied soils. Also, 5 methods were chosen for extracting available Fe, Mn and Zn. Also, a pot experiment was carried out to study the correlations between the amount of available nutrients extracted by different extractants used and their concentrations in barley plants. Results: The obtained results could be summarized for nutrients under study as follows: Phosphorus: The powerful of the extraction solutions of available-P could be arranged in descending order: Warren & Cooke, (1962), Knudsen et al, (1982) and Soltanpour & Schwab, (1977). Also Available – p extracted by Soltanpour & Schwab (1977) was highly correlated with P- concentration in barley plants (r = 0. 603**) than the other methods. Potassium: The powerful of the extraction solutions of available - k could be arranged in the order of: Knudsen et al, (1982) followed by Warren & Cook (1962). Also K-extracted by Knudsen et al (1982) and Warren &Cooke (1962) were highly correlated with k – concentration in barley plants followed by Soltanpour & Schwab (1977). While the best significant correlation was noticed with Bray & Kurtz method (1945) the r-values were 0.469**,0.467**,0.414**,and 0.315*, respectively. Iron: The powerful of the extraction methods of available -Fe could be arrange in the descending order: Lakenen & Ervio, 1971; Knudsen et al 1982 and Soltanpour and Schwab (1977). Also, the highest correlation between Fe- concentration by barley plants and Fe- extracted by Knudsen et al (1982) with r = 0.350**, while the lowest correlation was noticed by using Lakenen & Ervio (1971) with r = 0.262*. Manganese: So, the powerful of the extraction methods of available - Mn could be arranged in the descending order: Lakenen & Ervio, 1971 Olsen & Carlson 1950 ,Soltanpour and Schwab 1977 ,Lindsay & Norvell, 1978 and Knudsen et al, 1982. Also Mn-concentration in barley plants significantly correlated with all Mn – extractability in the following order: - Olsen & Carlson, 1950 (r= 0.602**) >Lakenen & Ervio, 1971 (r= 0. 460**) > Soltanpour & Schwab, 1977(r=0.262*) >Lindsay & Norvell, 1978 (r= 0.256 *) = Knudsen et al (1982). Zinc: The powerful of the extraction methods of available- Zn could be arranged in the order of: - Lakenen & Ervio, 1971 followed by Knudsen et al, 1982. Also Zn -concentration in barley plants significantly correlated in positive trend with available -Zn extracted by all extractants used. The highest correlation was with Knudsen et al., (1982), with achieved r= 0.527**, while the lowest correlation was found incase of Zn-extracted with Lakenen & Ervio., (1971) r= 0.289*


Effect of drainage water on some Egyptian soils and plant

Wafaa Mahmoud, 2001

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Field study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a long term irrigation with waste water on soil properties and content of macro and micro nutrients and heavy metals as well as cultivated plants. Therefore, four locations were chosen at Zenien area and the control from outside the study area, El- Giza Governorte. These irrigation sources were differing in its quality, including sewage wastewater, secondary treated sewage water, canal polluted water, well water and normal fresh water (control). The soil texture is clay and the tested crops were Berseem and Zea Maize. A salinity and heavy metals accumulation problems were found in soil as well as cultivated plants in long run application. The concentration ratio of the (N, P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn )was higher in soil irrigated with “SWW, STSW, CPW, and WW” in comparison with those irrigated with normal fresh water (control). A gradual decrease in heavy metals with increasing soil depth. There is an increase of macro , micro nutrients and some heavy metals content in plant shoots, a high accumulation ratio of these elements was found. A high transfer coefficient of these metals to plant shoots from soil was found. An increase of macro, micro nutrients and some heavy metals content in Maize grains was found in comparison with those obtained with control due to irrigation with low quality water


SALT toleerance of some agriculture crops during early growth stages

Mohamed El-saed El-shazly, 2001

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The purpose of this investigation was to study the salt tolerance of some agricultural crops during early growth stages.A COMPARISON OF WHEAT AND SUNFLOWER PLANTS WAS CARRIED OUT WITH RESOECT TO THEIR SALT TOLERANCE AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE. tWO EXOERIMENTS WERE PERFORMED TO ACHIVE THESE PURPOSES. GERMINATION EXPERIMENT: - Increasing salinity levels (NaCl, Na2SO4)and diluted seawater up to 20 dS/m)graduall decreased the germination rate ofwheat and sunflower,NaCl being more effective in this respect. -the germinatian rates of sunflower seeds were higher than that of wheat grains at different levels of salinity. GROTH AND UPTAKE EXPERIMENT: -the root being more affected than the shoots, particularly for wheat plant, indicating that sunflower plant was more relatively salt- resistant than eheat plant. -NaCl salinity was found to be generaly most effective on decreasing the dry matter yield fo wheat and sunflower plants compared to that of Na2SO4 as well as seawater. -Spraing wheat and sunflower plants with proline amino acid decreased the adverse effect of different salts on the dry matter yield of shoots for both plants.


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