Researsh & Applied Activities      [Total: 426 ]

AN ECONOMIC STUDY FOR PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF SUNFLOWER CROP

Mahmoud Gad Mohamed, Rania Mahmoud Abd El wahab, 2014

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The study aims to examine the production and consumption of sunflower crop in order to raise production and economic efficiency of the crop and contribute in reducing the oily gap through studying productivity and economic indicators of sunflower crop, the most important factors affecting consumption as well as study the production and cost functions of oily sunflower crop. The results indicated that the most important factors affecting the consumed quantity from sunflower oil are the amount of production and per capita income. Also, the equation mentioned two factors affect the consumed amount of sunflower oil by 76%. Moreover, the volume of feddan productivity of sunflower which minimizes production costs to their lowest level is estimated by 1109 kg. The study sample of 60 farmers showed that nobody, in this sample, his production exceeds this size and this volume is more than the productivity average which is 814.77 kg by 294.23 kg. The study recommends expanding cultivation of sunflower oil crop in the Beni Suef Governorate and in the new reclaimed land near it. This is by stimulating the farmer to grow the crop by providing reliable seed selling outlets, research centers, provide sources for selling the crop at an affordable price, determine the price of the crop before cultivation to encourage the farmers, provide different ways to market the crop and providing production accessories in the agricultural associations as well as raising the price of the crop so that it can compete the crops grown during the same season and conducting governmental collection centers for the crop to discharge the crop as well as the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture on the cultivation of the crop.


PATH ANALYSIS AS STATISTICAL MODEL FOR SCREENING NEW LINES OF SNAP BEAN (phaseolus vulgaris L

Sahar Frag Moussa, Wafaa Mohamed Shafai, 2014

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Four field experiments were conducted at Sids Horticulture Research Station, Beni-Sueif Governorate, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, during fall 2011, summer 2012, fall 2012 and summer 2013 seasons on snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Sixteen genotypes (ten new lines and six cultivars) were evaluated for their yield and growth characteristics. Plant height, number of branches/plant, snap pod length , snap pod thickness, snap pod width, snap pod weight , number of snap pods/plant, number of dry seeds/pod, 100-dry seeds weight and early and total snap pods yield were studied. Also, the path analysis was studied. The results showed that Line 20 and 24 produced the highest snap pods yield/feddan in the four seasons. Results of path analysis showed that early yield, pod weight, number of pods per plant and number of branches per plant were the most important contributing traits to the total yield variability of bean. It is concluded that these results are important for designing selection criteria index in our snap bean breeding program.


STEPWISE ANALYSIS OF MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT HUMIC ACID TREATMENTS AND NITROGEN RATES

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda Elaraby Ibrahim, 2014

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Two field trials were conducted in Ismailia Research Station representing the sandy soil, with split plot design in four replicates during two successive summer seasons of 2012 and 2013 to find out the effect of four humic acid (HA) treatments (i.e. soaking, spraying, soaking+ spraying and control) and three nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 90 and 120 Kg/fed) on maize yield and yield attributes. Simple correlation and stepwise regression analysis were used to find out the relationship between yield and its components and to predict their relative contributions to the grain yield. Differences among humic acid treatments were significant for all traits except plant height and weight of 1000 kernels, while nitrogen levels exhibited significant effect for all traits. The H3 treatment (Soaking + Spraying) recorded the best values for all traits except the number of ears per plot and the number of rows per ear. Increasing nitrogen levels enhanced the grain yield of maize. In general, it could be noticed that the combination of chemical fertilizer with the application of humic substances improved growth, yield and its attributes (grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernels per ear and weight of 1000 kernels), especially for the (Soaking + Spraying) treatment, that received 120 kg N per fed. Grain yield had a positive and significant correlation with all traits except the number of days from planting to 50% tasseling and silking. Meanwhile, stepwise multiple regression linear analysis for maize yield showed that ear length and diameter, no. of days to 50% silking and no. of kernels per row were the most important contributing traits to grain yield (R2=69.9%). Hence, the selection among these traits would be accompanied by high yielding and more effective for the improvement of maize grain yield in the same conditions.


Diallel analysis and separation out the components of genetic variance in eight Faba Bean genotypes

Zeinab Ghareeb, 2014

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The present investigation was carried out at Genetic Resources Department- Bahtim, to evaluate eight faba bean varieties in the diallele cross set. Twenty eight crosses were constituted in the 2011/2012, whereas parents and crosses were evaluated in 2012/2013 seasons, in a randomized complete block design of three replications. Results revealed highly significant variations within parents and F1 genotypes, indicating a wide genetic variability for the studied characters and the possibility of genetic improvement using such genetic pools of faba bean. Some crosses recorded significant desired heterosis percentages relative to mid parent and better parent for all studied characters except number of branches per plant. Both general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities were significant for all studied characters revealing the important role of both additive and dominant components in the inheritance of the studied characters. The ratio of general and specific combining ability (GCA/SCA) indicated that there were great additive effects for the majority of the studied characters. Giza 3 proved to be a good combiner for all studied characters except plant height and number branches per plant. Several crosses exhibited significantly positive SCA effects for studied characters especially L.512 × NA112 and L.153 × Giza 3 which exhibited highly significant and positive SCA effects for seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per plant. Heritability in broad sense (hb2 %) estimates were generally high for all studied traits. heritability in narrow sense was high for number of pods per plant (76.42), 100-seed weight (75.53), plant height (70.53) and number of branches per plant (62.00), while it was low for seed yield per plant. High heritability values coupled with high genetic advance were observed for100-seed weight and number of pods per plant would respond to selection. These values may indicate the possibility of increasing seed yield through selection for 100-seed weight and number of pods per plant which is an important yield component.


تأثير تفاعل التركيب الوراثى× البيئة على صفات المحصول لبعض التراكيب الوراثية لبنجر السكر

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda Elaraby Ibrahim, 2014

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In order to study the effect of genotype × environment interaction and stability of sugar beet genotypes for seven cultivars, viz Lilly, DS 9004, Gazella, Oscar Poly, Pather, Toro and Hercule. A field trail was sown in eight environments as major four locations (Sakha, Giza, El-Fayoum and Malawy) for two years (2011/12 and 2012/13) using a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Analysis of variance for root yield, sugar yield and sugar content showed that the environment and genotype and genotype × environment interaction (GEI) were significant. GEI were evaluated by two methods (phenotypic stability and AMMI model). According to phenotypic stability analysis results, genotype (Lilly) was the most stable for sugar content and root and sugar yield. This genotype recorded the highest root and sugar yield (30.34 and 5.22 ton/fed, respectively) across environments, and Sakha environment had the highest mean values of environments followed by El-Fayoum environment. AMMI model explained most of the genotype × environment interaction (85.97%, 83.34 % and 86.47 %) for root yield, sugar content and, sugar yield, respectively. Lilly was the best genotype based on the biplot, and showed specific adaptation to Sakha and El-Fayoum location. The varieties Pather, Hercule and Toro were the lowest variety among the evaluated varieties and it is better not to use it in the studied areas. The genotypes Gazella, Oscar poly and DS9004 had an average genetic potential for the studied traits, but its high general adaptability, then it could be introduced for all areas. Among the locations, Sakha was the best location, and was more similar to El-Fayoum. Meanwhile, Malawy was the poorest location. Therefore, two stability methods confirmed that Sakha and El-Fayoum are recommended as suitable regions for sowing sugar beet and Lilly variety could be suggested as the best genotype for these locations. Meanwhile, AMMI method showed new information. Keywords: Phenotypic stability, AMMI, genotype × environment interaction, stability, sugar beet.


PROBABILITY OF MATERNAL EFFECTS ON FABA BEAN SEED QUALITY AND YIELD COMPONENTS

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda elarabi, 2014

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The present research aimed to investigate possible maternal effects on the seed yield and some related traits and seed quality in the studied populations (TW and Nubaria1 + F1's and F2's including reciprocals) of faba bean. Genetic parameters were calculated in early segregating generation to reach the highest genetic advance. Correlation and path coefficients were also estimated for yield and its components. Significant differences were observed between mean generation for some yield traits (100-seed weight, tannin content, coat thickness and onset of flowering date) of F1 and its reciprocal and F2 hybrids, indicated maternal effect on faba bean seeds. Thus, selection for improving faba bean yield and seed traits should begin with the F2 seeds to ample genetic variability in this generation. It is noticed that the highest heritability values were detected for these traits that controlled by maternal effect. Tannin content, 100-seeds weight, number of branches per plant and coat thickness had higher estimates of broad sense heritability coupled with high predicted genetic advance from selection, indicating that these traits are mainly controlled by additive genes and selection for these traits may be effective. Furthermore, number of branches, number of pods, number of seeds per plant and 100-seed weight reflected significant correlation with seed yield per plant as well as their influences whether directly or indirectly on yield and its attributes. Hence selection for each or all of these traits might be used for the improvement of seed yield in early segregating generation. Meanwhile, selection for early flowering may improve seed quality traits, as thinner coat that was accompanied by low tannin. Keywords: Vicia faba, Maternal effect, Genetic parameters, Heritability, Genetic advance%, Correlation and path analysis.


Path analysis and heritability studies for yield and quality traits in some sugar beet varieties under two harvests

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda elarabi, 2014

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Two field experiments were carried out in Sakha Research Station, Kafr, El-Sheikh Governorate in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons to investigate the effects of the harvest age of sugar beet on sugar yield and quality traits of ten sugar beet varieties and defining the contribution of some yield attributes in sugar yield variation making use path analysis and heritability studies. A split plot design with three replicates was used in both seasons. The tested sugar beet varieties were Athospoly, MK2134, Asnaris, Habiba, Diamond, Nejma, Dina, Meridio, Kawemira and Malak. Harvest was made at 180 and 210 days from sowing. The sowing date in the two seasons was in the first week of October. The obtained results indicated significant varietal differences for the studied traits, the tested varieties at 210 days age, it was noticed that sugar beet varieties Athospoly, Mk2134, Kawemira ,Dina and Diamand recorded the highest averages of Sucrose percentage, Purity percentage, Extractable sugar and sugar yield compared with the other varieties. Moreover, Kawemira, Meridio and Dina varieties obtained the lowest values of impurities and sugar loss to molasses and then they attained high quality. Significant varietal response to delaying harvest in almost all yield and quality attributes could be detected. That sugar yield was positively and significantly correlated with root yield ton/fed, extractable sugar percentage, extractability percentage, purity percentage, and sucrose percentage. The path coefficient analysis indicated that sugar content and root yield had the highest positive direct effects (0.533 and 0.476 respectively) on sugar yield ton/fed. The extractable sugar percentage, purity percentage and extractability percentage had the highest positive indirect effects (0.557, 0.510 and 0.422 respectively), these traits therefore could be considered as a suitable selection criteria for evolving high yielding sugar beet genotypes. Broad sense heritability values were high for all traits indicating that most variability among genotypes was genetic and hence selection could be effective for these traits.


Some Models of Predicted Equations of Maize Response Yield to Fertilizer Applications

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda elarabi, Sahar Frag Moussa, 2014

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Two field trials were conducted at Giza Research Station, with split plot design with three replicates during the two successive summer seasons in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of cotingen for covering seed by four treatments (zero, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 g kg-1 grain) and six nitrogen fertilizer levels (control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg fed.-1) on maize yield and yield attributes of single cross 10 cultivar. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the importance of yield components and to predict the yield under different levels of nitrogen and cotingen rates. Nitrogen levels exhibited significant effect for all studied traits, while cotingen were significant for100-kernels weight; shelling% and grain yield traits only. The interaction between cotingen and Nitrogen was significant for row per ear, shelling% and grain yield. Meanwhile, stepwise linear regression analysis showed that 100-kernels weight, number of kernels per row and shelling% were the most important contributing traits to yield (R2 = 82.11%). The nitrogen rates for maximum yield derived from the four statistical models (linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and exponential) describing the response of yield, using the R2 statistic to select a model, which shows how each of the models fits the data. The quadratic model best described the yield responses observed in this study. Further confirms the role of nitrogen and cotingen fertilizers in increasing yield production in maize. The 5th N rate under 3rd cotingen (120 Kg fed-1 + 22.5 and 15g kg-1 grain) produced the highest yield being 34.70 and 34.65 ard. fed-1 over all treatments. This is very close to recommendations. The 4th N (90 Kg fed-1) rate under any cotingen level produced higher yield than any nitrogen rate only. Economically, considering optimum N fertilization rate, 105.18 Kg fed-1 nitrogen and 22.5 g kg-1 grain cotingen was the most reasonable level. This is considerably below the current recommendation of 120 Kg fed-1. Therefore, results confirmed that higher cotingen treatment decreased the optimal nitrogen and increased the yield


Some Models of Predicted Equations of Maize Response Yield to Fertilizer Applications

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda elarabi, Sahar Frag Moussa, 2014

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Two field trials were conducted at Giza Research Station, with split plot design with three replicates during the two successive summer seasons in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of cotingen for covering seed by four treatments (zero, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 g kg-1 grain) and six nitrogen fertilizer levels (control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg fed.-1) on maize yield and yield attributes of single cross 10 cultivar. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the importance of yield components and to predict the yield under different levels of nitrogen and cotingen rates. Nitrogen levels exhibited significant effect for all studied traits, while cotingen were significant for100-kernels weight; shelling% and grain yield traits only. The interaction between cotingen and Nitrogen was significant for row per ear, shelling% and grain yield. Meanwhile, stepwise linear regression analysis showed that 100-kernels weight, number of kernels per row and shelling% were the most important contributing traits to yield (R2 = 82.11%). The nitrogen rates for maximum yield derived from the four statistical models (linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and exponential) describing the response of yield, using the R2 statistic to select a model, which shows how each of the models fits the data. The quadratic model best described the yield responses observed in this study. Further confirms the role of nitrogen and cotingen fertilizers in increasing yield production in maize. The 5th N rate under 3rd cotingen (120 Kg fed-1 + 22.5 and 15g kg-1 grain) produced the highest yield being 34.70 and 34.65 ard. fed-1 over all treatments. This is very close to recommendations. The 4th N (90 Kg fed-1) rate under any cotingen level produced higher yield than any nitrogen rate only. Economically, considering optimum N fertilization rate, 105.18 Kg fed-1 nitrogen and 22.5 g kg-1 grain cotingen was the most reasonable level. This is considerably below the current recommendation of 120 Kg fed-1. Therefore, results confirmed that higher cotingen treatment decreased the optimal nitrogen and increased the yield


Some Models of Predicted Equations of Maize Response Yield to Fertilizer Applications

Zeinab Ghareeb, Hoda elarabi, Sahar Frag Moussa, 2014

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Two field trials were conducted at Giza Research Station, with split plot design with three replicates during the two successive summer seasons in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of cotingen for covering seed by four treatments (zero, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 g kg-1 grain) and six nitrogen fertilizer levels (control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg fed.-1) on maize yield and yield attributes of single cross 10 cultivar. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the importance of yield components and to predict the yield under different levels of nitrogen and cotingen rates. Nitrogen levels exhibited significant effect for all studied traits, while cotingen were significant for100-kernels weight; shelling% and grain yield traits only. The interaction between cotingen and Nitrogen was significant for row per ear, shelling% and grain yield. Meanwhile, stepwise linear regression analysis showed that 100-kernels weight, number of kernels per row and shelling% were the most important contributing traits to yield (R2 = 82.11%). The nitrogen rates for maximum yield derived from the four statistical models (linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and exponential) describing the response of yield, using the R2 statistic to select a model, which shows how each of the models fits the data. The quadratic model best described the yield responses observed in this study. Further confirms the role of nitrogen and cotingen fertilizers in increasing yield production in maize. The 5th N rate under 3rd cotingen (120 Kg fed-1 + 22.5 and 15g kg-1 grain) produced the highest yield being 34.70 and 34.65 ard. fed-1 over all treatments. This is very close to recommendations. The 4th N (90 Kg fed-1) rate under any cotingen level produced higher yield than any nitrogen rate only. Economically, considering optimum N fertilization rate, 105.18 Kg fed-1 nitrogen and 22.5 g kg-1 grain cotingen was the most reasonable level. This is considerably below the current recommendation of 120 Kg fed-1. Therefore, results confirmed that higher cotingen treatment decreased the optimal nitrogen and increased the yield


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