Journal      [Total: 1044 ]

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of some fruit and vegetable wastes

Mohamed Hosny Aly Hassan, 2024


This investigation was carried out to study the chemical composition, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibers of some Egyptian fruit and vegetable peels. Also, determine the bioactive compounds such as an antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C, besides the minerals. Water holding capacity (WHC) and oil binding capacity (OBC) were also determined. The obtained results indicated that potato peels and tomato pomace contained the highest values of protein (15.18 and 14.39%, respectively). On the other hand, the highest values of total dietary fibers and water holding capacity (WHC) were recorded for tomato pomace (48.04% and 6.44 g H2O/g dry matter, respectively). While, the prickly pear peels showed the highest value of ash (11. 84 %). Also, the same results indicated that orange peels had the highest value of carbohydrates (90.06 %). The same results indicated that mango kernel contained the highest fat, total phenolic and flavonoid (9.22%, 58.33% and 9.17 mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicated that all the studied peels besides mango kernel and tomato pomace showed antioxidant activity percentages, very higher than wheat flour .Since antioxidant activity recorded ranges from 73.47 to 91.41% respectively compared to 17.78% for wheat flour. Also, the obtained results indicated also that mango kernel showed the highest contents of Mg which was recorded, 1627.96 mg/100g. Moreover, potato peels showed the highest contents of K and Fe which recorded 4443.26 and 28.27 mg /100g, respectively. Prickly pear peels showed the highest contents of Ca, Na and Mn (3470.90, 767.68 and 2.15 mg /100g, respectively).

Production and Evaluation of Peanut Butter Prepared with Peanut Shells

Hayam Asawy, 2024


Background: Innovative application of processing is an emerging trend in food production.
Objective: The present study was conducted to produce peanut butter and evaluate the physical,
chemical, and sensory properties of the product, to which the outer shells of peanuts were added
in different proportions (5, 10, 15%) to reduce the calories of the product by reducing the fat content in the peanut butter as well as benefiting from the shells as a residue secondary to the peanut seeds.
Methods: The chemical composition of the prepared sample, along with bioactive determination
Using HPLC, microbial testing, Aflatoxin content, and sensory evaluation, have been done for the
prepared peanut butter using standard methods.
Results: The chemical composition of the peanut outer shell powder was characterized by the
highest value of fiber (46.6%), followed by total carbohydrates and protein (23.25%, (12.54%) respectively. The produced peanut butter showed that the total carbohydrate resulted in the highest
value (23.25%), followed by fat (42.21) and protein (28.12%). Substitution at 5, 10, and 15%
peanut outer shell resulted in a non-significant difference concerning protein. At the same time,
the lipid content showed a significant decrease compared to the control. A similar trend was found
concerning total carbohydrate-to-fat content. Total fiber increased to 1.5 & 2.08, and 2.6 times as
high as the content parallel to dietary fiber, while ?-Carotene decreased significantly due to the
substitution level. The substitution level decreased energy (cal) by about 203.58, 730.093, 562.86,
545.19, and 526.66, respectively, compared with the control. A slight increase was found in the
mineral content due to the substitution, except for the calcium increases at 15%. DPPH and ABTS% increased in parallel with the substitution level, which was in line with total phenols and
flavonoids. Flavonoid fraction resulted in nariagin (94.72 QE), the major flavonoid, followed by
lutein (82.23 QE). Meanwhile, phenolic compounds were described with pyrogallol (68.31 GAE)
(As the main compound, followed by chlorogenic (780.76 GAE). The fatty acid composition
showed that oleic and linoleic were predominant in all treatments. Bacterial, yeast, and mold
counts appeared after three months of storage (20 ± 2°C). Aflatoxin was not detectable in the sample of the peanut outer shells and peanut butter samples. Sensory characteristics showed approximately the same score for all treatments except that of 15% substitution, which resulted in a significant decrease in all parameters compared with the control.
Conclusion: This study reported that 5%, followed by 10% of peanut outer shells, were the most
suitable levels for making peanut butter, improving the nutritional value by increasing the percentage of fiber and antioxidants in peanut shells, leading to better quality products and shelf life.
Keywords: Aflatoxin sensory characteristics, peanut butter, peanut outer shells, microbiological analysis, HPLC, carbohydrates.

Comparative Study between the Effect of Marjoram (Origanum marjoram) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on the Fertility of Diabetic Male Albino Rats

Hayam Asawy, 2023


This research was applied to assess the impacts of marjoram (Origanum marjoram) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) water extract on diabetic male rats’ fertility. A total of forty-eight Sprague Dawley albino rats allocated into eight groups were utilized in this research. Varying doses of the extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w) Body weight (were utilized. Weight of testis, histological study, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were studied. Findings of marjoram and ginger demonstrated no significant change in weight of testis except at the high level, inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation, improve testosterone (T) levels, parameters of sperm analysis such as sperm concentration and motility than the controls. Elevated serum leptin, and prolactin (PRL) with declined serum T and rise in aromatase action in testis, of the positive controls were observed than negative controls. While, diabetic rats received tested extract showed significantly decreased in leptin, prolactin and aromatase with increasing serum T. Histopathological changes, involving seminiferous tubules (ST) degeneration, with vacuolization, sloughing and decline of spermatogenic cells were also observed in controls. Orally marjoram (ME) or ginger extract (GE), with diabetic rats appeared to avoid these changes by decreased accumulated testicular lipid, increased sperm count and androgens, as well as improve testicular structure. So, this research recommends that intake of marjoram and ginger as a drink or add it to any other food product) Such as) had a positive impact on the fertility potentials of the diabetic male rats.
Keywords: Marjoram and Zingiber -Diabetic male- Antioxidant - Fertility- Histopathology

Preparation and evaluation of brownies soft biscuit from non-wheat flour using date molasses

Eman Salem, Mohamed Hosny Aly Hassan, Dalia Osman, 2023


The effect of fortification of brownies soft biscuit, which prepared from corn and rice flours as a non-wheat flour with different levels of date molasses (DM) as a natural source of iron and other nutrients on the quality was studied. The results showed that RF+60%DM describing the extreme sensory evaluation points followed by RF+70%DM then CF+60% then CF+70% DM. Physical properties tests of biscuits showed that the volume of biscuits significantly increased (p<0.05) by increasing the ratio of DM up to 60% and 70%. Texture results showed that firmness at zero time were lower for CF+50%DM (14.69), CF+ 60% DM (8.53), RF+ 50% DM (13.22) and RF+ 60% DM (7.74). There is a direct relationship between the increase in the ratio of date molasses and the increase in the values of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn in produced soft biscuits. Iron contents results of RF+ 70% DM, RF+ 60% DM and CF+ 70% DM were 3.85, 3.67 and 3.35 mg/100 gm biscuit products respectively. They give the highest values of iron contents. Consumed of 100 gm of biscuits made by enrichment with 50 or 60 % of DM in the biscuit's dough give about 26.5 to 34.4 % for adolescent males and 19.5 to 24.5% for adolescent females

Effect of natural sources rich in calcium on treated rats induced osteoporosis

Hayam Asawy, doaa Hassan, Aiat Rezk Kalil, 2022


: The present study aimed to treat female rats’ osteoporosis using natural sources rich in calcium (permeate with kiwi or fg). Thirty-two female rats weighting 150±10 g was used in this experiment. After adaptation period (7 days), rats were divided to 8 groups (four in each group); frst group worked as a control negative and other groups were injected with 1 mg Dax. /kg/bw glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) for 7 days to induce osteoporosis. Second group was considered as a positive group and other groups were treated with beverage (kiwi with permeate or fg with permeate) at different concentrations, i.e., 20, 30 and 40%. The DPPH test was recorded 69.19, 87.01, 68.95, and 44.88% for fresh kiwi, refrigerator kiwi beverage, fresh fg, and refrigerator fg beverage respectively. Meanwhile, using ABTS recorded of 32.6, 39.07, 36.66 and 41.99 Trolox/100 g for above mentioned treatments. In general, total phenol and total flavonoid values of fg treatments were high compared with kiwi treatments. The antimicrobial examination showed an increase in lactic acid bacteria due to refrigeration in both beverages and less total count. Mold, yeast, and coliform not detected. The biological assay resulted in decrease weight gain and feed intake while feed efficiency ratio slightly affected due to beverages. Ca and P content of osteoporotic femur have shown an increase more than the potassium content. Also, serum Ca, P, PTH, Vit. D and protein increased significantly as the result of beverage treatments. The X- ray showed an improved of bone in all treatments compared with (+) control. It could be concluded that permeate mixed with kiwi or fg can be used as a therapeutic diet for subjects, who suffered from osteoporosis.
Keywords: Milk permeate • Kiwi • Fig. functional beverages • Bacteria • Osteoporosis • Glucocorticoid

Risk Evaluation and Biological Utilization of Some Micronutrients Due to Heavy Metals Resulted from Fuels Used in Baladi Bread Baking

Mohamed Hosny Aly Hassan, 2022


Baladi bread is cornerstone of food subsidy program, as main source energy. Current study aimed to evaluate the effect of using different sources of fuel on concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in bread collected from different fuel sources from Egypt as well as biological effects of HMs on some micronutrients. Representative Baladi bread samples baked from different fuel sources (Wood, Solar and Condensed natural Gas (CNG)) were collected for approximate composition and analysis of Aluminum (Al), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Nickle (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd). Risk evaluation was performed among different Egyptian regions. Biological experiment on (control, heavy metal mixtures (HMMs) and 1/10LD ) male albino50 rats were performed for 12 weeks. Ferritin, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) levels were determined. Wood fuel resulted in the highest value for all HMs in bread samples followed by solar, while CNG showed only presence of Al. Rural areas showed higher hazard index (HI) compared with urban. Statistical correlation between increased HMs in serum with some micronutrient deficiencies were proved. Wood fuel is the worst method in baking bread. Long-term; low-level exposure to HMMs induced toxic effects.

Formulation and Evaluation of High Energy-protein Bars as a Nutritional Supplement for Sports Athletics

Rehab ِAhmed, Maha Kamal Ali, 2022


The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate high energy-protein bars as a nutritional supplement for sports athletics. The nutritional bars (formulas A, B, and C) were prepared using the same ratios of whole oat, kidney beans flour, peanut butter, dried berries, sugar, and glucose, in addition to sweet potato (with formula A), carrot flour (with formula B) and banana flour (with formula C). The chemical composition, texture profile analysis, Total phenolic content (TPC), Total flavonoids (TF), DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), energy content and sensory evaluation of bars were determined. Formula A was the highest bar in terms of protein, fat, minerals, and energy content, while, formula C was the highest in carbohydrate and ash values. The highest crude fiber was observed with formula B. Also, formula B exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to all other formulas. No significant differences could be traced among bars in the sensory properties. Moreover, the bar with banana flour (formula C) was significantly higher in hardness, adhesiveness, resilience, and springiness compared with the other bars formulas. This study recommends the use of formula A as a source of protein, fat, minerals, and energy in the nutrition of athletes, and formula B which has a higher antioxidant capacity to improve the health of the athletes.

Production of Chicken Patties Supplemented with Cantaloupe By-Products: Impact on the Quality, Storage Stability, and Antioxidant Activity

Maha Kamal Ali, Rehab ِAhmed, Alyaa Mahmoud, 2022


This study investigated the effect of supplementation with cantaloupe peel (CP) and seeds (CS) (3, 6, 9, and 12%) powder on the quality and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chicken patties during storage (-20° C/3 months). The addition of CP and CS powder increased protein, fat, ash, and fiber values of chicken patties compared with control, while carbohydrate, pH, and TBA were decreased at zero time and after 3 months of storage. The WHC, cooking yield, fat retention, and moisture retention were increased by increasing CP and CS powder addition ratios, while cooking loss and shrinkage were decreased. Also, CP and CS powder improved antioxidant activity, microbiological quality, and overall acceptability of chicken patties. The hardness of raw and cooked chicken patties was decreased with increasing CP and CS addition ratios. It is recommended to use CP and CS powder as functional ingredients in the preparation of functional foods.

Nutritional and quality characteristics of some foods fortified with dried mushroom powder as a source of vitamin D

Rehab ِAhmed, Maha Kamal Ali, 2022


Vitamin D plays a vital role in synthesizing calcium-carrying proteins in the small intestine and helps the absorption of calcium in the body, thus reducing the risk of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults, especially in women. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value and quality characteristics of some food products such as waffles, breadsticks and salad cream fortified with dried mushroom powder (DMP) after exposure to sunlight for 60?min as a source of vitamin D. The exposure of mushroom to sunlight for 60?min before drying increased its content of vitamin D by 158% more than fresh mushroom (not exposed to sunlight). The DMP was added to the product’s formula by a ratio of 1, 2, and 3%. The addition of DMP increased protein, ash, fat, and vitamin D2 and D3 contents in all products, while carbohydrates and moisture contents were decreased in both waffles, and breadsticks. The hardness of both waffles and breadsticks was decreased with increasing the levels of DMP added, while the addition of DMP led to enhance bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in all products. The sensory evaluation of waffles, breadsticks, and salad cream containing DMP was not changed than control sample. The results found that the intake of 100?g of salad cream, waffles, and breadstick (containing 3% DMP) could by providing more than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of vitamin D. Therefore, this study recommended the use of DMP (by a ratio of 3%) in fortifying food products in order to meet the RDA of vitamin D.

Utilization of Chickpea Split (Cicer arietinum L.) in Preparing Some Gluten-Free Casein-Free Food Products for Autism Children

Rehab ِAhmed, 2022


This study aimed to prepare and evaluate some gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) food products for autism children from rice and chickpea split. Like-milk beverages and snacks (bakery) were prepared by replacing rice with chickpea at a ratio of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, and in a ratio of 25% and 50% with fried snacks. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, the energy content of ingredients and final products, as well as the viscosity, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation of final products, were determined. The results showed that chickpea contains higher values of protein, fat, fiber, and ash compared with rice. Also, the antioxidant activity (total phenolic (TP), DPPH scavenging activity, and FRAP value) of chickpea was higher than rice. The addition of chickpea to rice caused a significant increase in protein (%), fat (%), minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Zn, and Mg) (%), and antioxidant activity of all products, and these values were increased with the increased of chickpea amount added, while the viscosity of rice-chickpea milk samples and the hardness of snacks (fried and bakery) were significantly decreased with the increase of chickpea amount added. According to the recommended daily allowances (RDA), it was found that 100 mL of chickpea milk (100%) could provide autism children with 99.5%, 32%, and 36% of the daily required iron, Ca, and Zn, respectively. Also, the daily intake of 100 g of snacks (sample BS5) could provide autism children with 75%, 7%, 42%, 125%, 1.7%, and 52% of the daily required of protein, fiber, Ca, iron, Mg, and Zn, respectively. On the other hand, 100 g fried snacks (sample FS3) could provide autism children with 59.9%, 42%, and 64% of the daily required protein, calcium, and iron, respectively. The best sensory evaluation scores were obtained with rice milk (100%), bakery snacks sample BS4 (25% rice: 75% chickpea), and fried snacks sample FS2 (75% rice: 25% chickpea).