Journal      [Total: 328 ]

Studies on immune response of mice vaccinated with E COLI K99 vaccine

Safwat Rofaiil, Germine Saad Gorgy, 2013


This study was carried out on laboratory mice for calrifiyng the immune response after vaccination with E.coli K99 vaccine. The prepared vaccine was administred intramuscullary and orally in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Serological tests were carried out to evaluate the imune response. The obtained results revealed that, a significant increase in the level of antibodies in sera of intermuscullary vaccinate mice, reached 1882, 1592 in pregnant and non pregnant group respectively, while reached 1205 in orally vaccinated group. The vaccine induces best protection after challenge of pregnant and non-pregnant vaccinated mice given by I/M injection with protection rate of 85% in both of them while in orally vaccinated group the protection rate was 90% due to presence of IgA. From the high protection rate due to stimulaneous of local innmuity.

Effectiveness of protective potentials of chicken egg yolk in cotrolling salmonellosis using laboratory mice as a model



This work has been designed to investigate the protective potential of chicken egg yolk and experimentally infected with salmonella typhirium showed survival rate of 92 % and absence of infected bacteria compared to non treated group (20 %) . histopathological examination revealed that treated group showed completed absence of histopathological changes in intestine and only few histopathological changes in liver and heart, while non treated group showed mucosal goblet, cells formation with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia in serosa of intestine, significant infiltration of liver with leucocytic cells in hepatic tissue with necrotic changes and the heart showed leucocytic inflamantory cells infiltration in between bundles of degenerated cardiac muscles. So chicken egg yolk can be used in enhancing the immune system and could be effective in protecting animal species against salmonella infection.

Common Disease of Rabbits in Egypt

Safwat Rofaiil, 2012


Rabbits are important animals as economic source of animal protein and due to teir role in medical science. Disease problems of such animals cuase great economic losses. the present review deals with problems of gastrointestinal, respiratory, urogenital systems and dermatologic, neurologic, ophthalmic diseases caused by bacterial, viral, parastic and fungal infections. Symptoms and treatment of such diseases are also mntioned.

Comparative studies on updated isolates of Foot and mouth disease virus in cattle in kafr El Sheikh governorates

Amr Hassan, Ahmed Abd Elkarim, Manal Moustafa, Safy el din Abdel aziz, 2012


Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been annually isolated during the recent years in Egypt. There is no sufficient local data about the genetic changes occurred in the virus, which makes tracing of its oritgin difficult. The characteristics of the FMDV that caused sporadic cases in Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt in late 2010 have not yet been reported . Suspected FMD virus samples, Tongue epithelium (TE) and vesicular fluid (VF) were isolated on cell-culture monolayer of baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells and suckling baby mice then serotype by complement fixation test (CFT). Direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and agar gel immune diffusion test (AGIDT) used as confirmatory tests. Cell culture grown virus that was identified as serotype O "FMD virus by complement fixation test. It was found that all virus isolates shared a closer relationships to the current strain with r-value" ranged between were 0.86-0.88 by using virus neutralization test. In addition, molecular detection, nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the obtained FMDV isolates are performed to study the molecular epidemiology of the virus. Changes in the sequence of the VP1 coding region of these viruses were identified. RNA extracted from either clinical or cell culture grown virus was subjected to Real time – Polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR and specific amplified DNA segments for FMD were amplified. Nucleotide sequencing of FMDV VP1 gene was determined. The phylogenic analysis revealed that the isolated FMDV virus in Kafr El- Sheikh Governorates 2010 was homologous with O/Sharquia 72 and the used vaccinal strain O1/3/Aga93.

Common diseases of rabbits in Egypt

Safwat Rofaiil, 2012


Rabbits are important animal as economic source of animal protein and due to their role in edical science. Disease problems of such animals cause great economic losses. The present review deals with problems of gastrointestinal, respiratory, urogenital systems and dermatologic, neurologic, ophthalmic diseases caused bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections. Symptoms and treatment of such diseases are also mentioned.

Studies on some medical plant extracts as immunostimuant in rats experimentally infected with Salmonella typhimuyrium.

Safwat Rofaiil, Alaa El-Kholy, Mahmoud Mohammed, 2011


Aloe extract was used as diet supplementation in a group of rats experimentally infected with Salmonella Thiphimurium. It was found that rats that fed on diet with aloe extract for 30 days, then, experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhirmurium showed survival rate 92% in comparison with group of rats fed on ration without aloe extract and experimentally infected with Salmonella typhyrium histopathological examination revealed that treated group with rats of aloe extract showed few histopathological changes, while those non-treated group showed significant infiltration of liver mature and premature leucocytic cells in hepatic tissue with severe necrotic changes. Moreover, the heart of such untreated group showed leucocytic inflammatory cells infiltration between the bundles of degenerated cardiac muscles.

Trials for attenuation of pigeon paramyxoivrus-1 in Mice

Safwat Rofaiil, 2011


A preliminiary attempt for possibility of attenuating a local isolate of pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) was investigated by passaging in weanling mice, aiming for using it as live immunizing agent. After five passages by intracerebral (I/C) route, the virus showed significant reduction of its virulence for SPF chicken embryos and susceptible pigeons as judged by mean death time (MDT), intravenous and intracerebral pathogenicity index (IVPI and ICPI). Disminished pathogenicity was observed without losing its immunogenicity as proved by developing antibody after 21 days. Titre in inoculated pigeons reached 6.8 log2 and 6.5 log2 on the fourth and fifth passages respectively. Such titer level was satisfactory enough to resist inoculation with the virulent strain. Achieved results were highly promising as successful attempt for encouarging further investigation aimed to prepare alive attenuated immunogenic, low cost and effective (PPMV-1) vaccine.

Characterization of Equine Influenza Equine A H3N 8 isolated in Egypt 2008

Magda Kalad, Safaa Warda, Eman Ebied, Nashwa Abdelhamid, Nehal Mohamed, Mahmoud Elkbany, Ibrahim Ibrahim, 2011


Equine Influenza is one of the most economically imortant diseases of equine in countries with substantial breeding and racing industries. In Egypt, Equine influenza type 2 (H3N8) was isolated in 1989 and 2000. In July 2008, an outbreak of equine inflenza virus occured in Egypt in at least three governorates, Cairo, Alexandria and Giza. This work describes the antegnic and genetic chracteization of the virus recovered from this outbreak. Thirty nasal swebs were collected from horses suffering from respiratory manifestation in Cairo, Alexandria and Giza governorates Virus isoation attempts were performed in SPF embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). Virus isolates were antigenically and genetically chracterized using HI,PCR and sequencing. Influenza A virus was recovered from 25 of the30 samples collected. Fourteen were confirmed by reverse transcritase PCR and sequencing. Haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes sequencing from selected isolates showed 98% nucleotide identity with Equine influenza A(H3N8) virus from Kanazawa, Japan and USA in 2007. In condition, Equine influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was the cause of outbreak occured in Egypt in July 2008.

Determination of the relationship between egg drop syndrome (EDS) immune status in vaccinated hens and their egg quality

Mohamed Khodir, 2011


The present work was carried out in a trial to overcome the possible obstacles which may face the evaluation of egg drop syndrome (EDS) vaccine through the application of the challenge test using the virulent virus. It spots the light on the relationship between the levels of EDS antibodies in vaccinated hens and the quality and quantity of laid eggs from these hens. Live attenuated chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF) and inactivated duck egg EDS vaccines were used to such purpose where they were used to vaccinate 2 groups of hens at 4 and 16 weeks of age. The induced antibodies in vaccinated hens were followed up using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and serum neutralization test (SNT) revealing that all vaccinated hens exhibited high levels of specific EDS antibodies confirming the production of good quality and quantity of eggs.

Comparative studies on the immune response elicited in chickens Vaccinated with recombinant avian influenza-fowl pox vaccines As A primary vaccine or prime- boost scheme



Comparative immunological studies on different types of live recombinant fowl pox virus containing the avian influenza H5 hemagglutimin (HA) gene (rFP- AI- H5) from several strains were done to evaluate their efficacies susceptible SPF chickens were vaccinated with the rFP-AI-H5/Scotland and rFP-AI- H5/ Irland vaccines as primary or prime-boost vaccination with killed H5N2 vaccine to study the immune response against them through monitoring protection % against local circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 strain 28 days post-vaccination. All vaccinated chickens with one or double doses of live recombinant vaccines and challenged with HPAIV succumbed to disease, while those vaccinated with killed vaccine or recombinant vaccines as prime-boosted by killed AI vaccine were protected from severe clinical signs and death. Both rFP- AI-H5/Scotland and rFP-AI-H5/Irland vaccines induced poor protection % when used as one dose (17.7% and 37.5%) or as two doses (23.5% and 47.1%) against HPAIV. In birds vaccinated vaccines (rFP- AI-H5/Scotland and rFP-AI-H5/Irland) became protected after challenge by HP AIV with 87.5, 100, 88.2, 94.1% by using oropharyngeal swabs from the live infected control group as well as the vaccinated chicken, it was observed that the reduction in the viral shedding were 0.3,0.7,0.5,1.3, 2.4,3.9,2.9 and 3.2 corresponding for chicken vaccinated with one and two doses of rFP-AI-H5/Scotland one and two doses of rFP- AI- H5/Irland one and two doses of infactivated H5N2 and r AI-H5 (Scotland and Irland) boosted with inactivated H5N2, respectively. The data clearly indicate that the inactivated AI vaccine confers protection comparable to that of the recombinant as primary vaccine against AIV. While, rFP- AI-H5/Irland was more effective than rFP-AI-H5/Scotland.