Journal      [Total: 988 ]

Nano-encapsulated Iron and Folic Acid-Fortified Functional Yogurt Enhance Anemia in Albino Rats

Wedad El-Kholy, 2021


Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major health concern in developing countries, and
these see an increased incidence in pregnant women and children in particular. The
contribution of dairy products as natural products in drug delivery approaches is inspiring.
This study aimed to analyze the application of iron (Fe) and folic acid (FA) bovine serum
albumin-nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) as anti-anemic pharmacological agents that fortify
stirred functional yogurt (SFY), comparing these with a plain control and SFY fortified
with Fe and FA in free forms. The physicochemical, cytotoxicity,microbiological, viscosity,
oxidative interactions,microstructural, sensorial analyses, and bioavailability properties of
IDA-induced Albino rats were examined. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM),
Zetasizer, and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were applied. Nanocapsule-fortified
SFY showed an enhanced apparent viscosity, water-holding capacity, microstructure,
least lipid oxidation, and overall sensorial acceptability. Feed that included Fe + FA
nanocapsule-fortified SFY (G6) succeeded in restoring hemoglobin (16.53 gdL?1), iron
(109.25 ?gdL?1), ferritin (33.25 ?gdL?1), and total protein (8.6 gdL?1) at the end of
the 4-week feeding period, with significant competition revealed in calcium and zinc
absorbance. Nanocapsule-fortified SFY showed no adverse effects or architectural
alterations in the liver, kidney, or spleen, as indicated by biochemical and histological
examinations. Bovine serum albumin-nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) of iron (Fe) and folic
acid (FA) can be recommended as anti-anemia supplements in different functional
food applications.
Keywords: anti-anemia, natural products, bioavailability, nano-encapsulated Fe and FA, food supplements, stirred
functional yogurt
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the top 20 risk factors for the global distribution of disease
burden. TheWHOis working with the Egyptian government to addressmajor challenges due to the
prevalence of IDA, which is found

Effect of different treatments on nutritional value of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and its utilization in Biscuit manufacture

SAHAR ABD EL-WAHAB El-Gohery, 2021


Physical properties, chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids profile and anti-nutritional factors i.e. phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor of lima bean seeds (Phaseolus lunatus) which newly cultivated in Egypt were investigated. Addition to study the effect of common processing methods (soaking, cooking, roasting, and dehulling) on the chemical composition, minerals content and anti-nutritional factors of lima bean seeds in order to be used in biscuit preparation. Results showed that protein content was significantly (P ? 0.05) increased in dehulled lima bean (27.06%) compared to raw lima bean (26.02%). All processing methods significantly (P ? 0.05) increased Soluble Dietary Fiber (SDF), however soaked seeds contained the highest significant Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) (30.18%) and Insoluble Dietary Fiber (IDF) (22.15%). Raw lima bean was superior in calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, and zinc compared with all processed samples. Raw lima bean had a higher content of all essential amino acids, except methionine compared to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate. The effect of different processing methods used in this study on lowering phytic acid and tannins, was arranged in the following significant (P ? 0.05) order: dehulling > cooking> roasting > soaking. Trypsin inhibitor was completely eliminated by cooking and dehulling treatments. Results showed that no significant differences (P ? 0.05) were found in appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability of biscuits substituted with 30% raw or processed lima bean and between control biscuit (100% wheat flour). The diameter, spread ratio, chemical composition (protein, ash, crude fiber, SDF, IDF and TDF) and minerals were significantly increased in all substituted biscuits compared to control biscuit. Improvement in the essential amino acid profile of raw lima biscuit was observed with higher values of essential amino acids, chemical score (CS), and biological value (BV). This study recommended the use of lima bean in preparing biscuits at 30% replacement to enhance the nutritional composition of biscuits with acceptable sensory properties.

The Bacterial Lethal Effect of Gaseous or Liquid CO2 in Raw Milk

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2021


The consumer demands for high-quality, minimally-processed products that are microbiologically safehave been increased. Raw skim milk or pathogenic bacteria-inoculated sterilized milk was treated withgaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2at different levels and stored at 4°C for 7 days.The bacterial reductionperformed by gaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2, as nonthermal method, at different levels in raw milkwas compared to those of achieved by laboratory thermal pasteurization. The counts of standard platecount (SPC), coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of storageperiod in raw milk treatments and pasteurized milk. The pathogenic bacterial counts were determinedin inoculated sterilized milk during storage period. Changes in the pH values and sensorial propertiesof raw skim milk treated with different levels of gaseous or liquid CO2during storage at 4°C wereevaluated. The results showed that the SPC reduced till the 5th day of storage period with liquid CO2 atdifferent levels, while the SPC of control (without adding CO2) and gaseous CO2 treated raw milktreatments increased with prolonging storage period but the SPC growth rate of gaseous CO2 treatedraw milk treatments was lower than those of control allover storage period. The coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria of liquid CO2– treated raw milks were lower than those of treated with gaseousCO2 along storage period. The liquid CO2 (28.17 mM) treated raw milk showed the absence of coliformsallover storage period and almost similar low counts of SPC and psychrotrophic bacteria to those of
pasteurized milk. The counts of different studied pathogenic strains inoculated in sterilized milk
declined with increasing liquid CO2 level and prolonging storage period. The counts of E. coli (twostrains) lowered, while S. aureus and B. cereus slightly increased with gaseousCO2. The pH slightlydecreased with increasing gaseous or liquid CO2levels and storage period. Off odors and coagulationare not recorded for liquid CO2 - raw milk treatments along storage period. Hence, the liquid CO2(28.17mM) can be used as effective method of storing bulk raw milk and as nonthermal method formilk pasteurization.

Comparative Study of Vegetable Oils Oxidative Stability using DSC and Rancimat Methods

Rania Mohamed el meselhy, 2021


COMPARATIVE study was carried out to evaluate and compare the oxidative
stabilitystability of vegetable oils (olive, corn and sunflower) in Egypt, through evaluation of
accelerated oxidation at four different isothermal temperatures (110, 120, 130, 140 °C) using
two different instruments: a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a Rancimat instrument,
taking into account the physicochemical quality characteristics and relationships between
oxidative stability and fatty acid composition of oils. The Rancimat instrument was set at the
four different isothermal temperatures with an air flow 20 L/h and measures the induction
period (IP) of the selected oils. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique involved
accelerated oxidation of oil samples in an air flow of 60 ml/min in DSC cell set at four different
isothermal temperatures. A rapid increase in evolved heat was observed with the appearance of
a sharp exothermic curve during initiation of the oxidation reaction. From the resulting
exothermic curve, the onset of oxidation time (To) was determined graphically by the DSC
instrument. There was an excellent correlation (p<0.0001) found between DSC (To) values and
Rancimat (IP) measurements where the Pearson correlation coefficient (>0.98) between the two
methods with coefficient of determination (R2 >0.89) for DSC independent of the vegetable oil
source, imply that DSC can be recommended as an alternative appropriate objective method for
assessing the oxidative stability of vegetable oils because of its simplicity, absence of toxic
chemicals, small amount of sample and time-saving nature and could be easily used for routine
analysis in oils and fats industry.
Keywords: Vegetable oils, Oxidative stability, DSC, Rancimat, Comparative study

Using Nanotechnology in Bleaching Vegetable Oils

Rania Mohamed el meselhy, Mounir Eid, 2020


HE present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of nanotechnology in bleaching
three important Egyptian oils (soybean, corn and sunflower). The raw bleaching earth
powder was milled for 10 h in a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate morphology, crystallite size,
lattice strain and particle size of as-received and milled powders. The mechanical alloying
process succeeded to obtain nano-sized bleaching earth powders after 10 h of milling and the
morphology appeared rod with 46.6 nm in length and 4.46 nm in diameter. The milled nanosized
bleaching powder was used in bleaching of oils under study. Comparing color indices,
peroxide values and spectral absorbencies at 232, 270 nm for the resulted bleached oils with
the unbleached and control ones bleached with raw bleaching earth, it was concluded the high
bleaching efficiency of nano-sized bleaching earth in reducing color indices, peroxide values
and spectral absorbencies at 232, 270 nm.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Bleaching earth, Vegetable oils, Bleaching efficiency.

Active Components of Squid Ink and Food Applications

Nesren Mohamed Bondk, 2020


In Egypt, squid ink is disposed of during squid preparation, which may cause environmental pollution and health problems. Therefore, this study was carried out to make use of the active ingredients found in the squid ink as by-products. The chemical composition, the mineral, total phenols, and flavonoids contents of squid ink were determined. DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and antitumor activity of squid ink on human tumor cell line (Lung carcinoma cell line) were also tested beside its antimicrobial activity. Two mixtures of black or brown squid ink sauce were prepared. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was 91.66%. The results of the cell viability and toxicity assay of squid ink indicated that as the concentration of squid ink increased the viability percentages were decreased, while inhibitory activity percentages were increased. The IC50 [the concentration causing the death of 50% of the human tumor cell line (Lung carcinoma cell line A549)] was 22 ?g/mL. The results also indicated that the squid ink had antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus vulgaris with zone inhibitions of 19, 18, 12, 13, 11, 13, 12 and 10 mm, respectively. The overall acceptability scores of the black and brown squid ink sauces were 9.35 and 10, respectively. In conclusion, the formulated squid ink sauces with a strong odor, high acceptability, and different colors as well as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities can fulfill the desires of many consumers.

Keywords: Squid ink, Anti-oxidant, Anti-microbial

Hepatoprotective Effects of Mulberries and Cape gooseberry on Thioacetamide Induced Liver Injury in Rats.

Nahed Zaki, Nasra Mohamed Abd El-Hak, 2020


The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of black mulberry, white mulberry and cape gooseberry on the thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rats hepatocytes damage in vivo. The data showed that significant differences in the total phenolics and total flavonoids content, between the black mulberry, white mulberry and cape gooseberry. These findings revealed that black mulberry had more total antioxidant activity. The highest levels of glucose, fructose and arabinose were detected in white mulberry. The 54 male albino rats used separately into nine groups of 6 rats each group for 4 weeks as follows: Group 1 served as a normal control. Groups 2-9: Rats injected with TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) twice a week. Group 2 kept as positive control. Groups 3 and 4 were given 5 and 10 ml/kg b.w rat of black mulberry. Group 5 and 6 were administered 5 and 10 ml/kg b.w rat of white mulberry. Groups 7 and 8 received 5 and 10 ml/kg b.w rat of cape gooseberry. Finally, Group 9 was treated daily with silymarin (100 mg/kg). The effects were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent and silymarin. Alteration in the morphological and the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage were studied in the groups. TAA has elevated the liver function, kidney function, lipid profile and MDA levels and reduced the serum levels of albumin, HDL cholesterol, and CAT. Treatments with black mulberry, white mulberry and cape gooseberry juices brought back the altered levels of biochemical markers to the near normal levels at doses independently. Histological examination of the liver tissues confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of fruits juices. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat’s hepatic architecture. Conclusion: our study demonstrated the ameliorative effects of black mulberry, white mulberry and cape gooseberry juices against TAA induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: black mulberry, white mulberry, cape gooseberry, antioxidants, liver fibrous

Utilization of Some Fruits and Vegetables Juices to Produce Syrup (dibis) as New Products

Nesreen Ali, 2020


The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a sweetener has increased in recent years, therefore, the use of natural sweeteners as well as sucrose is an interesting area for food industry. Fruits and vegetables are important components for human diet. In this context, consumption of fruits and vegetables as phytochemical is gaining considerable importance as safeguard to maintain human health, due to presence of bioactive components, in addition to beneficial roles in human physiology such as (wholly prickly pear, persimmon, and pumpkin). Processing of such materials into syrup (dibis) (non-purified) could be applied to utilize for their nutraceutical properties compared to (dates dibis) control. It is noteworthy that prickly pear, persimmon and pumpkin had very short season is in the market and they easily spoiled, that the process making syrup (dibis) of them is considered as one of the important methods for preservation and subsequently, utilized at any time of the year hence, added value as well as produce new products. Results had shown that, ash contents in all samples and were matching with the values in Egyptian Standard. There were observed significant differences at p? 0.05 among the samples in their minerals content compared to the control. The pumpkin dibis had its minerals content as that of the control. It was observed that, dibis of persimmon is rich in both of zinc and iron as that of control .It could be observed that, all produced dibis samples recorded the high antioxidant activity compared to the control (dibis dates) which was the lowest (25.80%).On the other hand, it could be that from data there are significantly differences (p?.0.05) of their total antioxidant activity among samples, however, persimmon dibis was the superior. It was noticed that, dibis of persimmon, pumpkin and wholly prickly pear had developed the sensory properties, and subsequently increased the palatability (very good) compared to (dibis) of dates (control) which is a thick sugary liquid extracted from dates, while dibis was produced from fruits / vegetables juice had contained about (68-78%) total soluble solids in the concentrated form, which accounts (12.18- 19.99%) less sugar content.

Evaluation of gluten-free noodles fortified by Spirulina algae

Salwa Jabal, 2020


Spirulina is a unique algae. It is very rich in nutrients. Therefore, gluten-free noodles made from potato flour was fortified to raise its nutritional value by adding 5, 10 and 15% spirulina algae, as it is a suitable food for people suffering from celiac disease. The chemical composition of the spirulina algae, potato flour and gluten free noodles were determined. Vitamins, minerals, heavy metals, amino acids, pigments contents and in vitro protein digestibility were determined. The sensory characteristics of gluten-free noodles fortified with spirulina algae were also evaluated. The results indicated that heavy metals contents of spirulina algae (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) were under the permeable limits according to the Egyptian Standards. The results indicated that the spirulina algae was rich in vitamins (with highest contain of inositol, 57.78 mg/100g), minerals (P 2100, K 1996, Ca 728 and Fe 438 mg/100g), from the determined pigments phycocyanin pigment showed the highest content (13.85%) and chlorophyll (1.5%). The total essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids of the spirulina algae were found approximately 38.97% and 61.05%of protein content, respectively. Addition levels of 5%, 10% and 15% of spirulina algae to potato flour led to increase the contents of protein by about 24%, 49% and 73% respectively, Ca by 66, 275 and 423% respectively, P by 528, 1192 and 1734% respectively, K by 40, 84 and 159% respectively, Fe by 348, 576 and 952% respectively and in vitro protein digestibility values by 11, 21 and 32% respectively compared to control sample. Results of the sensory evaluation revealed that addition of spirulina algae powder to potato flour at levels up to 15% could be recommended, since all the produced noodles scored higher values for all the evaluated sensory characteristics compared to control sample.

Effect of Drying Process on the Quality of Table Olives

Rania Mohamed el meselhy, Hamdy Ahmed Badawy, 2020


The present work aimed to investigate the effect of drying conditions (temperature and time) on the quality of green table olives (Oleo eurapaea L.) Picual cultivar during the drying process in order to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality of table olive. Oven temperature varied from 50 to 70°C drying rates were determined and the proximate analysis of dried green olives was evaluated by analysis of moisture, protein, ash, fiber and oil contents. Peroxide value, acidity and fatty acids composition of extracted oil from olive samples were determined. Consumer's acceptance test was applied. A comparison of fresh and dehydrated olive showed that oven drying led to decrease of crude protein. Crude fiber content showed a slight increase during drying and may have undergone some alterations in its structure due to Maillard reactions. Ash content also showed a slight variation but may be considered as practically unchanged. Fatty acid analysis revealed that table olives were especially rich in oleic acid and the fatty acid composition did not show significantly change during drying. Olives can be considered as a product with a satisfactory microbiological quality and nutritional value with regard to bioactive ingredients. It brings about substantial reduction in mass and volume which has important economic benefits through reducing packaging and minimizes the volume of containers with maximum net weight, thereby lowering transportation costs, avoids losses and keeps high quality of longer shelf-life of table olives.

Keywords: Table olives; oven drying; dehydration; consumer’s acceptability