Journal      [Total: 1000 ]

Utilization of Chickpea Split (Cicer arietinum L.) in Preparing Some Gluten-Free Casein-Free Food Products for Autism Children

Rehab ِAhmed, 2022


This study aimed to prepare and evaluate some gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) food products for autism children from rice and chickpea split. Like-milk beverages and snacks (bakery) were prepared by replacing rice with chickpea at a ratio of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, and in a ratio of 25% and 50% with fried snacks. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, the energy content of ingredients and final products, as well as the viscosity, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation of final products, were determined. The results showed that chickpea contains higher values of protein, fat, fiber, and ash compared with rice. Also, the antioxidant activity (total phenolic (TP), DPPH scavenging activity, and FRAP value) of chickpea was higher than rice. The addition of chickpea to rice caused a significant increase in protein (%), fat (%), minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Zn, and Mg) (%), and antioxidant activity of all products, and these values were increased with the increased of chickpea amount added, while the viscosity of rice-chickpea milk samples and the hardness of snacks (fried and bakery) were significantly decreased with the increase of chickpea amount added. According to the recommended daily allowances (RDA), it was found that 100 mL of chickpea milk (100%) could provide autism children with 99.5%, 32%, and 36% of the daily required iron, Ca, and Zn, respectively. Also, the daily intake of 100 g of snacks (sample BS5) could provide autism children with 75%, 7%, 42%, 125%, 1.7%, and 52% of the daily required of protein, fiber, Ca, iron, Mg, and Zn, respectively. On the other hand, 100 g fried snacks (sample FS3) could provide autism children with 59.9%, 42%, and 64% of the daily required protein, calcium, and iron, respectively. The best sensory evaluation scores were obtained with rice milk (100%), bakery snacks sample BS4 (25% rice: 75% chickpea), and fried snacks sample FS2 (75% rice: 25% chickpea).


sabah Ahmed, 2021


The present study aimed assessing the microbiological quality of same cheese and examining the microbiological quality of coated and Non coated cheese samples with edible whey protein films , also studying the inhibitory effect of varied concentrations of Rosemary essential oil as antimicrobial agent after incorporated it with the tested film samples. The study also investigated the rheological and organoleptic properties of samples before and after coating and during storage periods at 4±1°C and 25±3°C.
It was found that the test treatment was with pH7 of solubility in water as strong barrier and the physical and mechanical properties of water vapor and gases as a strong barrier also the best concentrate 0.4 and tensile strength and elongation, which are the test treatment on the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties occurring in the pressed cheese, it has maintained high quality during storage periods.

Shelf-life of Domiati cheese under modified atmosphere packaging

Amany el-deeb, Entsar Mohamed, 2021


The present study describes the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Domiati cheese. Five different MAP were studied
[10% CO2/90% N2 (G1), 15% CO2/85% N2 (G2), 25% CO2/75% N2 (G3), 100% CO2 (G4), and 100% N2 (G5)]. Control samples were packaged in air (CA) and under vacuum. In both groups of cheeses, chemical analysis was significantly affected by MAP during cold storage. Ripening indexes were significantly affected by MAP during cold storage. Microbiological data showed that G4, followed by G5, were the most effective groups inhibiting the growth of total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, and yeasts and molds until the end of storage. Sensory evaluation was significantly affected by MAP and storage period, at 45 d CA cheese samples were judged as unacceptable.
The best sensory properties were obtained in G5, G4, and G3 treatments, and recorded a relatively higher sensory evaluation scores. The best shelf-life extension was obtained in G5, G4, and G3 treatments.

Impact of lemon peel extracts utilization on the biological values of the Labneh during storage

Ebthal Abdo Elkawalany, Amany el-deeb, Dalia El - sheikh, 2021


Lemon peel extract is a natural source of improving biologically and physiological functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate antioxidant, phenolic compounds, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial potential of lemon peel water extracts. Fresh and dried lemon peel extracts at concentrations of 1,2 and 4% were used to enhance Labneh quality. The hemical, physical, rheological, microbiological and sensory properties of the tested samples were evaluated (at 5±1°C) after 30 days of storage. Dried lemon peel extract (DLPE) recorded high radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents compared to fresh lemon peel extract (FLPE). Dried lemon peel extract has potent, also, antiproliferative effects with CC50 = 61.2 ?g/ml which provided a promising approach to its safety. DLPE possessed a great antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Meanwhile, total solids, ash, fat and protein values were slightly affected by extracts addition in Labneh samples. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing the concentration of lemon peel extracts. Control sample recorded the highest values of hardness, while cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values were gradually decreased with higher concentrations of lemon peel extracts till the end of storage period. Total bacterial counts of Labneh samples were increased, reached the maximum after 7 days of storage. Psychrophilic bacteria, Yeasts & moulds and coliform bacteria were not detected in processed Labneh up to 3 weeks of storage period. The addition of lemon peel water extracts (fresh or dried up to 4%) improved Labneh flavor, body & texture and appearance at 5±1°C for 30 days of storage.

Changes in the viability of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus during storage of ice milk fortified with sweet cherry

Amany el-deeb, Asmat Elsaied, Aliaa Darwish, 2021


Four ice milk samples were produced, one of them served as control (C, no added sweet cherry pulp (SCP), and containing free cells of L. rhamnosus) and the other three treatments containing 30 % SCP and free cells (T1), encapsulated cells using sodium alginate-skim milk (T2), or encapsulated cells using sodium alginate-denaturated whey protein (T3). The fresh ice milks were subjected to sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties (overrun, and meltdown tests) while the changes in pH, L. rhamnosus viability, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AOA) have been monitored at 1, 15, and 30 days of frozen storage. SCP had higher TSS (17.5%), total sugar (13.24%), higher TPC (112 mg GAE/100g), and AOA (84.16%) while it had a lower pH value (4.14). Unlike the effect of having probiotic bacteria, adding SCP increased overrun, and decreased pH and melting rate of ice milks. Also, pH decreased over time, and the lowest value was observed for T3. L. rhamnosus was strongly protected (had the highest survival rate of 95.94% for T3) using alginate-denaturated whey protein followed by alginate-skim milk (90.04% for T2). Adding SCP increased TPC and AOA of ice milks and their values were decreased during storage. Regarding sensory properties, all samples were acceptable. It could be concluded that encapsulation using sodium alginate blended with skim milk or denaturated whey protein improved the viability of L. rhamnosus in ice milk.

Improving the quality properties and extension the shelf life of soy cheese

EL-sayed Sayed-Ahamed, Amany el-deeb, 2021


This study was to improving properties and enhancing the shelf life of soy cheese. Cheeses made from soymilk (100%) or soymilk blended with fresh skim milk (75%:25%) was storage in brine solutions (5 and 10 g/100 ml NaCl) for 60 days at 5±1°C. Chemical, microbiological, textural and Sensory evaluation was carried out during storage time at fresh, one and two months.
Moisture, ash, total nitrogen (TN), soluble nitrogen (SN), salt and yield contents were significantly (P<0.05) affected by blended with skim milk and brine concentrations used in the experimental cheeses at fresh and during storage. Minerals (Ca, P, K and Zn) in soy cheese blended with 25% fresh skim milk (D treatment) recorded the highest values at in comparing to soy cheese (A treatment). The PH values showed little decreased in brined soy cheese at fresh in 5 and 10% NaCl solutions. Microbiological properties showed that slightly decreased in the log counts of Lactobasillis bulgaricus and Streptococcus. thermophilus of brined soy cheese in all treatments and reaching the lowest count after two months of storage and no significant (P ?0.05) changes between treatments in total bacterial counts at fresh. Firmness recorded increased values at fresh in A, B and C treatments in compared to C, D and E treatments, while Cohesiveness, Gumminess, Chewiness and Resilience values were decreased during storage period of all soy cheese treatments. The proportion of fresh skim milk (25%) used in soy cheese significantly (p < 0.05) influenced on sensory characteristics and improved generally at fresh and during storage compared to soy cheese (100% soymilk). Also, treatments storage in 5 and10% brine solutions at 5±1°C enhancing the shelf life up to 60 days of storage period.

Nano-encapsulated Iron and Folic Acid-Fortified Functional Yogurt Enhance Anemia in Albino Rats

Wedad El-Kholy, 2021


Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major health concern in developing countries, and
these see an increased incidence in pregnant women and children in particular. The
contribution of dairy products as natural products in drug delivery approaches is inspiring.
This study aimed to analyze the application of iron (Fe) and folic acid (FA) bovine serum
albumin-nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) as anti-anemic pharmacological agents that fortify
stirred functional yogurt (SFY), comparing these with a plain control and SFY fortified
with Fe and FA in free forms. The physicochemical, cytotoxicity,microbiological, viscosity,
oxidative interactions,microstructural, sensorial analyses, and bioavailability properties of
IDA-induced Albino rats were examined. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM),
Zetasizer, and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were applied. Nanocapsule-fortified
SFY showed an enhanced apparent viscosity, water-holding capacity, microstructure,
least lipid oxidation, and overall sensorial acceptability. Feed that included Fe + FA
nanocapsule-fortified SFY (G6) succeeded in restoring hemoglobin (16.53 gdL?1), iron
(109.25 ?gdL?1), ferritin (33.25 ?gdL?1), and total protein (8.6 gdL?1) at the end of
the 4-week feeding period, with significant competition revealed in calcium and zinc
absorbance. Nanocapsule-fortified SFY showed no adverse effects or architectural
alterations in the liver, kidney, or spleen, as indicated by biochemical and histological
examinations. Bovine serum albumin-nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) of iron (Fe) and folic
acid (FA) can be recommended as anti-anemia supplements in different functional
food applications.
Keywords: anti-anemia, natural products, bioavailability, nano-encapsulated Fe and FA, food supplements, stirred
functional yogurt
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the top 20 risk factors for the global distribution of disease
burden. TheWHOis working with the Egyptian government to addressmajor challenges due to the
prevalence of IDA, which is found

The Bacterial Lethal Effect of Gaseous or Liquid CO2 in Raw Milk

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2021


The consumer demands for high-quality, minimally-processed products that are microbiologically safehave been increased. Raw skim milk or pathogenic bacteria-inoculated sterilized milk was treated withgaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2at different levels and stored at 4°C for 7 days.The bacterial reductionperformed by gaseous or liquid (subcritical) CO2, as nonthermal method, at different levels in raw milkwas compared to those of achieved by laboratory thermal pasteurization. The counts of standard platecount (SPC), coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of storageperiod in raw milk treatments and pasteurized milk. The pathogenic bacterial counts were determinedin inoculated sterilized milk during storage period. Changes in the pH values and sensorial propertiesof raw skim milk treated with different levels of gaseous or liquid CO2during storage at 4°C wereevaluated. The results showed that the SPC reduced till the 5th day of storage period with liquid CO2 atdifferent levels, while the SPC of control (without adding CO2) and gaseous CO2 treated raw milktreatments increased with prolonging storage period but the SPC growth rate of gaseous CO2 treatedraw milk treatments was lower than those of control allover storage period. The coliforms and psychrotrophic bacteria of liquid CO2– treated raw milks were lower than those of treated with gaseousCO2 along storage period. The liquid CO2 (28.17 mM) treated raw milk showed the absence of coliformsallover storage period and almost similar low counts of SPC and psychrotrophic bacteria to those of
pasteurized milk. The counts of different studied pathogenic strains inoculated in sterilized milk
declined with increasing liquid CO2 level and prolonging storage period. The counts of E. coli (twostrains) lowered, while S. aureus and B. cereus slightly increased with gaseousCO2. The pH slightlydecreased with increasing gaseous or liquid CO2levels and storage period. Off odors and coagulationare not recorded for liquid CO2 - raw milk treatments along storage period. Hence, the liquid CO2(28.17mM) can be used as effective method of storing bulk raw milk and as nonthermal method formilk pasteurization.

Comparative Study of Vegetable Oils Oxidative Stability using DSC and Rancimat Methods

Rania Mohamed el meselhy, 2021


COMPARATIVE study was carried out to evaluate and compare the oxidative
stabilitystability of vegetable oils (olive, corn and sunflower) in Egypt, through evaluation of
accelerated oxidation at four different isothermal temperatures (110, 120, 130, 140 °C) using
two different instruments: a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a Rancimat instrument,
taking into account the physicochemical quality characteristics and relationships between
oxidative stability and fatty acid composition of oils. The Rancimat instrument was set at the
four different isothermal temperatures with an air flow 20 L/h and measures the induction
period (IP) of the selected oils. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique involved
accelerated oxidation of oil samples in an air flow of 60 ml/min in DSC cell set at four different
isothermal temperatures. A rapid increase in evolved heat was observed with the appearance of
a sharp exothermic curve during initiation of the oxidation reaction. From the resulting
exothermic curve, the onset of oxidation time (To) was determined graphically by the DSC
instrument. There was an excellent correlation (p<0.0001) found between DSC (To) values and
Rancimat (IP) measurements where the Pearson correlation coefficient (>0.98) between the two
methods with coefficient of determination (R2 >0.89) for DSC independent of the vegetable oil
source, imply that DSC can be recommended as an alternative appropriate objective method for
assessing the oxidative stability of vegetable oils because of its simplicity, absence of toxic
chemicals, small amount of sample and time-saving nature and could be easily used for routine
analysis in oils and fats industry.
Keywords: Vegetable oils, Oxidative stability, DSC, Rancimat, Comparative study

Effect of different treatments on nutritional value of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and its utilization in Biscuit manufacture

SAHAR ABD EL-WAHAB El-Gohery, 2021


Physical properties, chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids profile and anti-nutritional factors i.e. phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor of lima bean seeds (Phaseolus lunatus) which newly cultivated in Egypt were investigated. Addition to study the effect of common processing methods (soaking, cooking, roasting, and dehulling) on the chemical composition, minerals content and anti-nutritional factors of lima bean seeds in order to be used in biscuit preparation. Results showed that protein content was significantly (P ? 0.05) increased in dehulled lima bean (27.06%) compared to raw lima bean (26.02%). All processing methods significantly (P ? 0.05) increased Soluble Dietary Fiber (SDF), however soaked seeds contained the highest significant Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) (30.18%) and Insoluble Dietary Fiber (IDF) (22.15%). Raw lima bean was superior in calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, and zinc compared with all processed samples. Raw lima bean had a higher content of all essential amino acids, except methionine compared to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate. The effect of different processing methods used in this study on lowering phytic acid and tannins, was arranged in the following significant (P ? 0.05) order: dehulling > cooking> roasting > soaking. Trypsin inhibitor was completely eliminated by cooking and dehulling treatments. Results showed that no significant differences (P ? 0.05) were found in appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability of biscuits substituted with 30% raw or processed lima bean and between control biscuit (100% wheat flour). The diameter, spread ratio, chemical composition (protein, ash, crude fiber, SDF, IDF and TDF) and minerals were significantly increased in all substituted biscuits compared to control biscuit. Improvement in the essential amino acid profile of raw lima biscuit was observed with higher values of essential amino acids, chemical score (CS), and biological value (BV). This study recommended the use of lima bean in preparing biscuits at 30% replacement to enhance the nutritional composition of biscuits with acceptable sensory properties.