Journal      [Total: 1044 ]

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of some fruit and vegetable wastes

Mohamed Hosny Aly Hassan, 2024

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This investigation was carried out to study the chemical composition, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibers of some Egyptian fruit and vegetable peels. Also, determine the bioactive compounds such as an antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C, besides the minerals. Water holding capacity (WHC) and oil binding capacity (OBC) were also determined. The obtained results indicated that potato peels and tomato pomace contained the highest values of protein (15.18 and 14.39%, respectively). On the other hand, the highest values of total dietary fibers and water holding capacity (WHC) were recorded for tomato pomace (48.04% and 6.44 g H2O/g dry matter, respectively). While, the prickly pear peels showed the highest value of ash (11. 84 %). Also, the same results indicated that orange peels had the highest value of carbohydrates (90.06 %). The same results indicated that mango kernel contained the highest fat, total phenolic and flavonoid (9.22%, 58.33% and 9.17 mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicated that all the studied peels besides mango kernel and tomato pomace showed antioxidant activity percentages, very higher than wheat flour .Since antioxidant activity recorded ranges from 73.47 to 91.41% respectively compared to 17.78% for wheat flour. Also, the obtained results indicated also that mango kernel showed the highest contents of Mg which was recorded, 1627.96 mg/100g. Moreover, potato peels showed the highest contents of K and Fe which recorded 4443.26 and 28.27 mg /100g, respectively. Prickly pear peels showed the highest contents of Ca, Na and Mn (3470.90, 767.68 and 2.15 mg /100g, respectively).


Production and Evaluation of Peanut Butter Prepared with Peanut Shells

Hayam Asawy, 2024

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Background: Innovative application of processing is an emerging trend in food production.
Objective: The present study was conducted to produce peanut butter and evaluate the physical,
chemical, and sensory properties of the product, to which the outer shells of peanuts were added
in different proportions (5, 10, 15%) to reduce the calories of the product by reducing the fat content in the peanut butter as well as benefiting from the shells as a residue secondary to the peanut seeds.
Methods: The chemical composition of the prepared sample, along with bioactive determination
Using HPLC, microbial testing, Aflatoxin content, and sensory evaluation, have been done for the
prepared peanut butter using standard methods.
Results: The chemical composition of the peanut outer shell powder was characterized by the
highest value of fiber (46.6%), followed by total carbohydrates and protein (23.25%, (12.54%) respectively. The produced peanut butter showed that the total carbohydrate resulted in the highest
value (23.25%), followed by fat (42.21) and protein (28.12%). Substitution at 5, 10, and 15%
peanut outer shell resulted in a non-significant difference concerning protein. At the same time,
the lipid content showed a significant decrease compared to the control. A similar trend was found
concerning total carbohydrate-to-fat content. Total fiber increased to 1.5 & 2.08, and 2.6 times as
high as the content parallel to dietary fiber, while ?-Carotene decreased significantly due to the
substitution level. The substitution level decreased energy (cal) by about 203.58, 730.093, 562.86,
545.19, and 526.66, respectively, compared with the control. A slight increase was found in the
mineral content due to the substitution, except for the calcium increases at 15%. DPPH and ABTS% increased in parallel with the substitution level, which was in line with total phenols and
flavonoids. Flavonoid fraction resulted in nariagin (94.72 QE), the major flavonoid, followed by
lutein (82.23 QE). Meanwhile, phenolic compounds were described with pyrogallol (68.31 GAE)
(As the main compound, followed by chlorogenic (780.76 GAE). The fatty acid composition
showed that oleic and linoleic were predominant in all treatments. Bacterial, yeast, and mold
counts appeared after three months of storage (20 ± 2°C). Aflatoxin was not detectable in the sample of the peanut outer shells and peanut butter samples. Sensory characteristics showed approximately the same score for all treatments except that of 15% substitution, which resulted in a significant decrease in all parameters compared with the control.
Conclusion: This study reported that 5%, followed by 10% of peanut outer shells, were the most
suitable levels for making peanut butter, improving the nutritional value by increasing the percentage of fiber and antioxidants in peanut shells, leading to better quality products and shelf life.
Keywords: Aflatoxin sensory characteristics, peanut butter, peanut outer shells, microbiological analysis, HPLC, carbohydrates.


Preparation and evaluation of brownies soft biscuit from non-wheat flour using date molasses

Eman Salem, Mohamed Hosny Aly Hassan, Dalia Osman, 2023

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The effect of fortification of brownies soft biscuit, which prepared from corn and rice flours as a non-wheat flour with different levels of date molasses (DM) as a natural source of iron and other nutrients on the quality was studied. The results showed that RF+60%DM describing the extreme sensory evaluation points followed by RF+70%DM then CF+60% then CF+70% DM. Physical properties tests of biscuits showed that the volume of biscuits significantly increased (p<0.05) by increasing the ratio of DM up to 60% and 70%. Texture results showed that firmness at zero time were lower for CF+50%DM (14.69), CF+ 60% DM (8.53), RF+ 50% DM (13.22) and RF+ 60% DM (7.74). There is a direct relationship between the increase in the ratio of date molasses and the increase in the values of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn in produced soft biscuits. Iron contents results of RF+ 70% DM, RF+ 60% DM and CF+ 70% DM were 3.85, 3.67 and 3.35 mg/100 gm biscuit products respectively. They give the highest values of iron contents. Consumed of 100 gm of biscuits made by enrichment with 50 or 60 % of DM in the biscuit's dough give about 26.5 to 34.4 % for adolescent males and 19.5 to 24.5% for adolescent females


Comparative Study between the Effect of Marjoram (Origanum marjoram) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on the Fertility of Diabetic Male Albino Rats

Hayam Asawy, 2023

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This research was applied to assess the impacts of marjoram (Origanum marjoram) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) water extract on diabetic male rats’ fertility. A total of forty-eight Sprague Dawley albino rats allocated into eight groups were utilized in this research. Varying doses of the extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w) Body weight (were utilized. Weight of testis, histological study, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were studied. Findings of marjoram and ginger demonstrated no significant change in weight of testis except at the high level, inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation, improve testosterone (T) levels, parameters of sperm analysis such as sperm concentration and motility than the controls. Elevated serum leptin, and prolactin (PRL) with declined serum T and rise in aromatase action in testis, of the positive controls were observed than negative controls. While, diabetic rats received tested extract showed significantly decreased in leptin, prolactin and aromatase with increasing serum T. Histopathological changes, involving seminiferous tubules (ST) degeneration, with vacuolization, sloughing and decline of spermatogenic cells were also observed in controls. Orally marjoram (ME) or ginger extract (GE), with diabetic rats appeared to avoid these changes by decreased accumulated testicular lipid, increased sperm count and androgens, as well as improve testicular structure. So, this research recommends that intake of marjoram and ginger as a drink or add it to any other food product) Such as) had a positive impact on the fertility potentials of the diabetic male rats.
Keywords: Marjoram and Zingiber -Diabetic male- Antioxidant - Fertility- Histopathology


The Utilization of Yellow and Red Onion Peels and Their Extracts as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial in Preservation of Beef Burger during Storage

Nahed Zaki, Nasra Mohamed Abd El-Hak, Hanaa Mohamad Abd elrahman, 2022

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Natural antioxidants have gained interest in recent years as a result of their ability to reduce auto oxidation of fats, oils and fat containing food products by replacing synthetic antioxidants. Yellow and red onion peels were chosen as a natural antioxidant source in our study. In addition, the storage stability, TBA, antimicrobial and organoleptic of beef burgers with yellow or red onion peels or extracts were compared to BHT under refrigerated storage at 4±1°C for 15 days. Also compared were quality characteristics and cooking measurements (cooking loss, cooking yield, shrinkage and moisture retention). The major components in red onion peels were quercetin 11290.09 g/g and 1761.31 g/g in yellow onion peels, according to the findings. The results showed that increasing the amount of onion peels enhanced total phenolic, total flavonoids, and DPPH in burgers. Burgers made with onion peel extracts had the highest levels of total phenol and total flavonoids. The cooking yield and moisture retention of beef burgers using onion peels were both dramatically improved. The control burger had the most cooking loss, followed by the BHT prepared burger. As yellow or red onion peels and their extract were put to beef burgers, the pH of the beef was much lower when compared to the control. In the sensory acceptance test, there were no significant differences in color, odor, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability of beef burgers prepared with red and yellow onion peel powder and extracts at zero time, while slightly lower or similar judging scores in all organoleptic characteristics were observed in the tested beef burger samples and control sample during storage periods of two weeks. In addition, yellow or red onion peels, as well as their extract, may have antibacterial properties.


Utilization of Chickpea Split (Cicer arietinum L.) in Preparing Some Gluten-Free Casein-Free Food Products for Autism Children

Rehab ِAhmed, 2022

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This study aimed to prepare and evaluate some gluten-free and casein-free
(GFCF) food products for autism children from rice and chickpea split.
Like-milk beverages and snacks (bakery) were prepared by replacing rice with
chickpea at a ratio of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, and in a ratio of 25% and
50% with fried snacks. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, the energy
content of ingredients and final products, as well as the viscosity, texture profile
analysis, and sensory evaluation of final products, were determined. The
results showed that chickpea contains higher values of protein, fat, fiber, and
ash compared with rice. Also, the antioxidant activity (total phenolic (TP),
DPPH scavenging activity, and FRAP value) of chickpea was higher than rice.
The addition of chickpea to rice caused a significant increase in protein (%),
fat (%), minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Zn, and Mg) (%), and antioxidant activity of all
products, and these values were increased with the increased of chickpea
amount added, while the viscosity of rice-chickpea milk samples and the
hardness of snacks (fried and bakery) were significantly decreased with the
increase of chickpea amount added. According to the recommended daily allowances
(RDA), it was found that 100 mL of chickpea milk (100%) could
provide autism children with 99.5%, 32%, and 36% of the daily required iron,
Ca, and Zn, respectively. Also, the daily intake of 100 g of snacks (sample
BS5) could provide autism children with 75%, 7%, 42%, 125%, 1.7%, and 52%
of the daily required of protein, fiber, Ca, iron, Mg, and Zn, respectively. On
the other hand, 100 g fried snacks (sample FS3) could provide autism children
with 59.9%, 42%, and 64% of the daily required protein, calcium, and
iron, respectively. The best sensory evaluation scores were obtained with rice
milk (100%), bakery snacks sample BS4 (25% rice: 75% chickpea), and fried
snacks sample FS2 (75% rice: 25% chickpea).


Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of Some Foods Fortified with Dried Mushroom Powder as a Source of Vitamin D

Maha Kamal Ali, Rehab ِAhmed, 2022

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Vitamin D plays a vital role in synthesizing calcium-carrying proteins in the small intestine and helps the absorption of calcium in
the body, thus reducing the risk of rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults, especially in women. So, the objective of this
study was to evaluate the nutritional value and quality characteristics of some food products such as waffles, breadsticks and
salad cream fortified with dried mushroom powder (DMP) after exposure to sunlight for 60 min as a source of vitamin D. The
exposure of mushroom to sunlight for 60 min before drying increased its content of vitamin D by 158% more than fresh
mushroom (not exposed to sunlight). The DMP was added to the product’s formula by a ratio of 1, 2, and 3%. The addition of
DMP increased protein, ash, fat, and vitamin D2 and D3 contents in all products, while carbohydrates and moisture contents
were decreased in both waffles, and breadsticks. The hardness of both waffles and breadsticks was decreased with increasing
the levels of DMP added, while the addition of DMP led to enhance bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in all
products. The sensory evaluation of waffles, breadsticks, and salad cream containing DMP was not changed than control
sample. The results found that the intake of 100 g of salad cream, waffles, and breadstick (containing 3% DMP) could by
providing more than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of vitamin D. Therefore, this study recommended the use of
DMP (by a ratio of 3%) in fortifying food products in order to meet the RDA of vitamin D.


Production of Chicken Patties Supplemented with Cantaloupe By-Products: Impact on the Quality, Storage Stability, and Antioxidant Activity

Rehab ِAhmed, Alia Mostafa, Maha Kamal Ali, 2022

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This study investigated the effect of supplementation with cantaloupe peel (CP) and seeds (CS) (3, 6, 9, and 12%) powder on the
quality and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chicken patties during storage (-20°C/3 months). The addition of CP and CS
powder increased protein, fat, ash, and fiber values of chicken patties compared with control, while carbohydrate, pH, and TBA
were decreased at zero time and after 3 months of storage. The WHC, cooking yield, fat retention, and moisture retention were
increased by increasing CP and CS powder addition ratios, while cooking loss and shrinkage were decreased. Also, CP and CS
powder improved antioxidant activity, microbiological quality, and overall acceptability of chicken patties. The hardness of raw
and cooked chicken patties was decreased with increasing CP and CS addition ratios. It is recommended to use CP and CS
powder as functional ingredients in the preparation of functional foods.


Formulation and Evaluation of High Energy-protein Bars as a Nutritional Supplement for Sports Athletics

Rehab ِAhmed, Maha Kamal Ali, 2022

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The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate high energy-protein bars as a nutritional
supplement for sports athletics. The nutritional bars (formulas A, B, and C) were prepared using the same ratios of
whole oat, kidney beans flour, peanut butter, dried berries, sugar, and glucose, in addition to sweet potato (with
formula A), carrot flour (with formula B) and banana flour (with formula C). The chemical composition, texture
profile analysis, Total phenolic content (TPC), Total flavonoids (TF), DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Ferric
reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), energy content and sensory evaluation of bars were determined. Formula A
was the highest bar in terms of protein, fat, minerals, and energy content, while, formula C was the highest in
carbohydrate and ash values. The highest crude fiber was observed with formula B. Also, formula B exhibited the
highest antioxidant activity compared to all other formulas. No significant differences could be traced among bars in
the sensory properties. Moreover, the bar with banana flour (formula C) was significantly higher in hardness,
adhesiveness, resilience, and springiness compared with the other bars formulas. This study recommends the use of
formula A as a source of protein, fat, minerals, and energy in the nutrition of athletes, and formula B which has a
higher antioxidant capacity to improve the health of the athletes.


Utilization of Chickpea Split (Cicer arietinum L.) in Preparing Some Gluten-Free Casein-Free Food Products for Autism Children

Rehab ِAhmed, 2022

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This study aimed to prepare and evaluate some gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) food products for autism children from rice and chickpea split. Like-milk beverages and snacks (bakery) were prepared by replacing rice with chickpea at a ratio of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, and in a ratio of 25% and 50% with fried snacks. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, the energy content of ingredients and final products, as well as the viscosity, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation of final products, were determined. The results showed that chickpea contains higher values of protein, fat, fiber, and ash compared with rice. Also, the antioxidant activity (total phenolic (TP), DPPH scavenging activity, and FRAP value) of chickpea was higher than rice. The addition of chickpea to rice caused a significant increase in protein (%), fat (%), minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Zn, and Mg) (%), and antioxidant activity of all products, and these values were increased with the increased of chickpea amount added, while the viscosity of rice-chickpea milk samples and the hardness of snacks (fried and bakery) were significantly decreased with the increase of chickpea amount added. According to the recommended daily allowances (RDA), it was found that 100 mL of chickpea milk (100%) could provide autism children with 99.5%, 32%, and 36% of the daily required iron, Ca, and Zn, respectively. Also, the daily intake of 100 g of snacks (sample BS5) could provide autism children with 75%, 7%, 42%, 125%, 1.7%, and 52% of the daily required of protein, fiber, Ca, iron, Mg, and Zn, respectively. On the other hand, 100 g fried snacks (sample FS3) could provide autism children with 59.9%, 42%, and 64% of the daily required protein, calcium, and iron, respectively. The best sensory evaluation scores were obtained with rice milk (100%), bakery snacks sample BS4 (25% rice: 75% chickpea), and fried snacks sample FS2 (75% rice: 25% chickpea).


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