Researsh & Applied Activities      [Total: 9 ]

STUDIES ON SOME NATURAL IMPROVERS AND ITS EFFECT ON BAKERY PRODUCTS

BOTHAYNA ABD EL-LATEEF, 2009

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In this study, galactomannan was extracted from different sources (fenugreek, guar, and locust bean). Chemical composition and rheological properties of raw materials and galactomannans were determined. Glactomannans were also determined using HPLC to calculate the galactose / mannose ratio. Galactomannans were added to wheat flour at different levels as improvers and to produce healthy pan bread and cakes. Rheological properties of dough measurements and sensory evaluation of pan bread and cake were studied. The effect of galctomannans on staling rates for pan bread and cake were also studied. The results showed that galactomannan characterized by low contents of ash, ether extract, protein and crude fiber, whereas, it contained higher percentage of gum. The yields of extracted galactomannans with cold water from all previous used materials were higher than those extracted with hot water. They were 13.63, 16.45, 14.20, 12.99, and 14.72 for cold water extraction, and 8.46, 14.54, 11.42, 10.48, and 11.88 for hot water extraction for untreated fenugreek, treated fenugreek, black guar, white guar, and locust bean, respectively. The galactose to mannose ratio of galactomannans was 1.0 : 1.1 for fenugreek, 1.0 : 1.7 for guar and 1.0 : 2.4 for locust bean. The best used concentration of extracted galactomannan solutions were 1.0 % at shear rate (γ) 60 r.min-1. The rheological properties of dough made using 1.0 % level of extracted galactomannan from all used sources exhibited significant increase in each of water absorption, arrival time, mixing time, and stability. Meanwhile, physical and sensory properties of pan bread and cake were accepted at galactomannan concentration till 1.0 %. The effect of galactomannans extracted from different sources retard staling of pan bread and cake and improved keeping quality during storage periods till 1% levels than that of the other levels and control. On the other hand, galactomannans of carob beans was the best gum to retard staling than the other gums extracted from fenugreek and guar seeds. Key words: galactomannans, fenugreek, guar, locustbean, bakery products, pan bread, cake.


Bitterness, natural antioxidants and quality indices of virgin olive oil from different growing areas

2008

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The purpose of this investigation was to study different in the bitterness (K225), natural antioxidant (total polyphenol, orthodiphenol, α- tocopherol, chlorophenoll and carotenoid ) andquality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, spectrophotometric K232 and K270, organoleptic testes, color, oxidative stability) of virgin olive oil from Kornona;ii verity cultivated in different olive growing areas in Egyptnamely Giza, El-Sharkia, and El-Arish were determined. Phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Results showed that significant different between olive oil samples extracted from Koronakii variety cultivated in the three different growing areas. Virgin olive oil extracted from El-Arish region showed higher concentration of natural antioxidants.


Determination of pesticide residues in olive fruits and oils

2008

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Residue of diazinon insecticide in olive fruits and oils (Koronaki and picual vars) under normal conditions were studied. The samples were at different intervals of 1, 15, 30 and 45 days after treatment. The data indicated continuous loss of residues with elapse time. The level of diazinon residues in korona var were higher than in the picual var. (fruits and oils). Safety period for consumption was 45 days after pesticide treatment. The results ascertained that, the diazinon insecticide had no clear effect on the chemical composition of olive fruits as well as on the physical and chemical properties of virgin olive oils under study.


Combined effect of manure – nitrogen fertilization on maize hybrid (10) to insect infestation in relation to physical and chemical grain characters

2008

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Abstract Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the degree of insect infestation by sitophilus oryzae L. on maize grains(Hybrid10) treated in the field with organo-fertilizer (farm –yard manure at zero and 20 m3/fed.) under three levels of nitrogen fertilization(45,90 and 135 kg/fed). Results showed that the degree of infestation and the mean of emerged adults of S. oryzae were greatly affected by the tested fertilization treatments of Hybrid 10 maize. Data also , showed that the treatment of hybrid to insect infestation whereas , the combination between the high levels of nitrogen ( 135 kg/ fed .) and 20m3/fed manure, dave Hybrid 10 more tore tolerant for infestation and with less weight loss. Relationship between some chemicak and physical characters of Hybrid 10 and its resistance to insect infestation was atudied . Studch characteristics were obviously affected as a rested levels of nitrogen fertilization as well as its combination with manure , On the other hand, some physical characteristics were variously affected by insect infestation, i.e. weight of 100 grain , grain volume. Ash % endosperm %, germ % and hull %, Most of chemical composition of tested treatmend ( except total carbohydrate ) fertilization i. e. amylase %protein %, ash, oil %, and fibers. Finally, crude and its fractions the tested hybrid affected the degree of insect infestation and should be taken in consideration during breeding preeding to select a line with high yield. High quality , more resistant to insect attack and characterized with low degree of deterioration after storage. Key words: Maize hybrid, manure, nitroren fertilizers, chemical grain characters and S. oryzae


Producing coffee beverage like with high nutritive and healthy values

2008

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This work aims to produce coffee beverage like witke with high nutritive and healthy values from ground roasted soy bean seeds. The studies extended to include the chemical and antioxidants conted coffee bean seeds. Also studies extended to include the technological and organoleptic properties of produced coffee beverage like compared with coffee bean beverage. Results indicated that ground roasted soy bean seeds characterized with highest nutritive values , of which showed a protein, hexane extract and total carbohydrates increased by 162, 52.9 and 162,8% respectively compared with ground roasted coffee bean seeds . Also mineral content, ie., k, ca, Mg, Zn and Fe increased by 7.1, 14.5, 44.8, 476.9 and 85.5% respectively compared with ground roasted coffee bean seeds. On the other hand, ground roasted soy bean characterized with high contents of antioxdants of which isoflavones and phenolic acids increased by 89.5 and 46.6% respectively compared with ground roasted coffee bean seeds. The organoleptic properties of producing coffee beverage like from ground roasted soy bean had good acceptant of caffeine and high Vs 85% of commercial coffee beverage. Due to free content of coffeine and high protein, minerqls and antioxidants contents of coffee beverage like should be advise to produce this coffee beverage like to use it as a function beverage for people suffering from hypertension. Hypercholesterolemia, osteoprosis and iron deficiency diseases.


Utilization of wheat bran spontaneously fermentation to improve balady bread quality

2008

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this investigation was studied using spontaneously wheat bran and added 1.25% bakery yeast to wheat bran during wheat flour fermentation process. The chemical composition of wheat flour 82% extraction and its bran were determined. The results illustrated that the wheat bran is higher in total dietary fiber, total pentosan and β-glucan than wheat flour. The pH values, tetratable acidity (TTA) and phytic acid were measured in the spentenously wheat bran fermentation and 1.25% compressed bakery yeast plus wheat bran which fermentation for 16 and 48h. at 25ْ C during the intial and final fermentation. The results showed that the TTA increased by continuous decreased in pH values during the fermentation process. Whereby it decreased 70% of the total phytic acid loss during fermentation wheat bran plus bakery yeast for 48h. at 25ْ C The balady bread was prepared using wheat flour 82% extraction which fermented by wheat bran fermentation processes to give four treatments of balady bread. The sensory evaluation reported that the balady bread fermented by wheat bran plus 1.25% bakery yeast for 48h. gave the highest score. Moreover the swelling power and moisture content were determined in balady bread during storage period. The results indected that the balady bread which fermentation with wheat bran plus bakery yeast after 16 and 48h. were the best in swelling power and moisture content during storage period. It could be concluded that the fermentation process of wheat bran spontenouly and with bakery yeast improved the quality of balady bread. Whereas, the fermented of wheat bran plus bakery yeast gave the best sensory evaluation of balady bread.


Utilization of pumpkin pulp and seeds flours as nutrient supplement of wheat flour biscuits

2008

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ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the utilization of pulp and seeds flours of pumpkin as replacement of wheat flour at different levels (5,10,15,20%) to prepare rich protein and minerals biscuits for school children. The chemical composition of flours of wheat, pumpkin pulp and pumpkin seeds was determined. Chemical composition and physical properties as well as organoleptic evaluation of prepared biscuits were also determined. Elemental analysis of both pulp, defatted seeds flours of pumpkin and wheat flour as well as of prepared biscuits was performed. In addition, biological study using Albino white rats was done to evaluate biological parameters of prepared biscuits. Results indicated that the pumpkin seeds flour (PSF) contain a high protein content (43.8%) compared with that of wheat flour (11.16%) and pumpkin pulp flour (PPF) (8.37%). Ash content of PPF (11.17%) was significantly higher than those of PSF (3.4%) and wheat flour that has only 1.1% of ash content. PSF has values of calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, potassium and phosphorus significantly higher than those of wheat flour. PPF is very rich of potassium, sodium, calcium and iron compared with wheat flour. The protein and minerals contents of biscuit made with PSF increased significantly with increasing the replacement ratio. The addition of pumpkin pulp flour as replacement of wheat flour until level of 20% led to a significant increase in minerals content. Moreover, it gave a very good effect on sensory characteristics and protein efficiency ratio of prepared biscuit. Biscuit samples contained PSF gave higher body weight gain of experimental rats and food efficiency ratio (FER) in comparison with wheat flour biscuits. As organoleptic evaluation, the biscuit samples contained PSF until 10% as replacement ratio of wheat flour are nearly similar to control sample. Based on the obtained results, the new product of biscuit contained PSF or PPF can be covered protein and minerals of nutritional needs of schoolchildren in developing countries and could be recommended as food aid in institutional feeding programs for pupils in different school stages.


Studies on application using for some egyption herbs as antioxidants in production biscuts

2008

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Day by day increase importance the natural food additives, hence in this study, the phenolic extracted from basil leaves, spearmint leaves and fennel seeds as natural antioxidants were added at concentration 200, 400 and 600 ppm from fat weight using in biscuit production. Biscuit was stored at room temperature for 8 months. Induction period was measured by Rancimat apparatus. Total phenolic and phenolic acids compound were determined. Peroxide value, acid value, thiobarbituric acid and refractive index were measured during storage. Antimicrobial activity for phenolic extraction were examined after 8 months. Sensory evaluation was measured directly after baking. The results showed that total phenolic content in basil leaves, spearmint leaves and fennel seeds were 3.97, 1.91 and 1.53 mg/g as caffeic acid equivalents respectively. Five phenolic acids were found in both basial leaves and spearmint leaves, while four phenolic acids were found in fennel seeds by using (HPLC). Rancimat results showed that induction period for phenolic herbs could be ranked as follow: basil leaves > spearmint leaves > fennel seeds. The results elucidated that the best concentration from natural additives as antioxidants activity were 400 and 600 ppm compared with BHT. The results revealed that the more concentration of natural antioxidants increased, the more peroxide value, acid value, thiobarbituric acid and refractive index decreased. Total bacterial count and (yeast & mold) count were decreased with increasing the concentration phenolic additives. Sensory evaluation declared that addition different antioxidants had no significant differences effects were found between control and biscuit samples.


Studies on appliction using for some egyption herbs as improvement in production bakeries

2008

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In this study, the phenolic extracted from basil leaves, spearmint leaves and fennel seeds as natural anterior were added at concentration 200, 400 and 600 ppm from fat weight using in biscuit production. Biscuit was stored at room temperature for 8 months. Induction peroid was measured by Rancimat apparatus. Total phenolicand phenolic acids compound were determined. Proxide value, acid value, thiobarbituric acid and refractive index were measured during storage. Atnimicrobial activity for phenolic extraction were examined after 8 months. Sensory evaluated was measured directly after baking. The results showed that total phenolic content in basil leaves, spearmint leaves and fennel seeds were 3.97, 1.91 and 1.53 mg/g as caffeic acid equivalents respectively. Five phenolic acids were found in basial leaves and spearmint leaves, while four phenolic acids were found in fennel seeds by using (HPLC). Rancimat results showed that Induction period for phenolic herbs could be ranked as follow: basil leaves > spearmint leaves > fennel seeds. The results elucidated that the best concentration from natural additives as antioxidants activity were 400 and 600 ppm compared with BHT The results revealed that the more concentration of natural antioxidants increased, the moreperoxide value, acid value, thiobarbituric acid and refractive index decreased. Total bacterial count and (yeast & mold) count were decreased with increasing the concentration phenolic additives. Sensory evaluation declared that addition different antioxidants had no significant differences effects were found between control and biscuit samples.