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Analyzing Agribusiness Value Chains: Asa Starter of Competitiveness in the Future

Youssef Hamada Abd El-rahman, 2021
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Within the value chain analysis, how much value is created is cannot be avoided, and how it is distributed. This is an extra accounting point of view, and we titled it a value assessment approach. Particularly for the context of agribusiness chains, the question of how much value each actor creates, and how it gets is on the constant discussion. Sincethe main characteristic of agri-food chains is the different farm and at farm gate marketstructures,whereprimarystagesshowaspectsofcompetitionwhile industry and distribution tend to show degrees of market power, this conductsfrequentconflictsbetweenactors.Beingabletodevelopindicators in this regard, helps to better understand and tackle those conflicts. Where, development organizations have been playing a central role enriching the body of point of view. Mainly with intervention objectives and with the aimofgivingtheirtechniciansatooltoworkwithvaluechainactors,there has been a proliferation of manuals and guidelines. This isimportant particularlytotheagri-foodsector,asdevelopingcountriesenterintofood globalvaluechainsasprimaryproducers,inmostcaseswithscarceornone value-added, and showing poor conditions for the actorsinvolved. Havingobtainedthesetools,approaches,andpointofviewsthatoperate asmethodologicalframeworksfortheanalysisofagribusinessvaluechains, and with a better understanding of the multidimensional aspects of the concept, further analysis should be oriented to develop mathematical framework models and objective indicators to measure competitiveness and performance in agribusiness value chains. Where,the aim of this research is to compare three methods of trace competitiveness and performanceinagribusinessvaluechains.TheeffectsofAgribusinessvalue chains assessment (AVCA), environmental agribusiness value chains assessment (EAVCA) and environmentally extended input-output agribusinessanalysis(EE-IOAA)asavaluechainconfirmedthattheentire waterconsumptionformaximumcultivationreducedby28.159and28.181% inside the old and new lands of Egypt and that the overall region of crops isprobably931749.034and319914.983hectaresplantedwithintheantique and new lands of Egypt, in addition to the anticipated model presents a higher net benefit than the current model. The general net profit of the heterogeneouscaseemergesas186530.800and69395.275millionEPbetter than the full of thehomogeneous case (166259.954 and 20074.227 million EP) after applying the model, further to the entire cost of crops in heterogeneouscase40629.067and13102.565millionEPthatdidnotreach thetotalhomogeneouscase(34968.102and8436.099millionEP).Thisend resultmayadditionallyimplythatthedistinctionamongtheheterogeneous instances had a massive impact on the optimal solution. According to financial and economic analyzes, the inner annual rate of return (IRR) became better than the current model of the area and increased by 14.98 and 118.32% within the vintage and new lands of Egypt, and the absolute riskofoptimalcultivationisdecreasedby23.31and65.61%.Forthisreason, the Agribusiness value chain assessment (AVCA) as a value chain can be applied in the agriculture sector within the land ofEgypt.

Quality Characteristics of Processed Cheese Fortified with SpirulinaPowder

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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Spirulina is a rich source of nutrients viz., essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, carotenoids and vitamins. The study was carried out to evaluate of Spirulina maxima addition as source of nutrients, antioxidants and color on processed cheese properties. Materials and Methods: Processed cheese analogue treatments were supplemented with Spirulina maxima powder (1, 2 and 3%). The chemical, physical, color and sensorial properties of processed cheese analogue supplemented with S. maxima were evaluated through 3 months of cold storage (7EC). Also, the antioxidant capacity of S. maxima processed cheese analogue treatments was determined. Results: The spreadable processed cheese analogue with 3% S. maxima powder had higher chemical components except ash compared to control cheese. The results of physical properties showed that the penetrometer reading of the S. maxima processed cheese treatments was higher than those of control allover storage period, while oil separation and melt ability were lower. The S. maxima processed cheeses were more green (a-value) and lower whiter (L-value) than those of control. The highest free radical scavenging activity (57.24%) was recorded for S. maxima processed cheese analogue treatment (3%). From the sensorial results, the S. maxima processed cheese analogue (1 or 2%) treatments was higher acceptable compared to those of 3%. Conclusion: Hence, adding S. maxima powder (1 or 2%) during processed cheese analogue manufacture let the cheese to develop special color (green), high nutritional value, antioxidant activity and sensorial scores

Efficient enzymatic conversion of lactose in milk using fungal?-galactosidase

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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?-galactosidase (?-gal, E.C. 3.2.1.23) was detected in different fungal cultures and their fermentation factors wereoptimized, as well as ?-gal was purified and characterized from the selected fungal strain. Moreover, the potential impact of fungal ?-gal on free lactose-flavored milk production was investigated. Aspergillus terreusNRRL 280showed the highest ?-gal specific activity which grown at 37 ?C for 7 days compared to other fungal strains. Also,A. terreusNRRL 280 showed their highest ?-gal activity at the optimized growth conditions of 37 ?C, pH 4.0 for 7days. ?-gal enzyme was purified from A. terreusNRRL 280 using 40-60% ammonium sulfate saturation with22.15% yield and 1.11 purification fold. Purified ?-gal exhibited their optimal activity at 60 ?C, pH 6.0, and 80min of incubation time, as well as it was is quite stable for the heat treatment. ?-gal activity was significantlyenhanced with 5 mM Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+, while it was were sensitive to Fe3+ and EDTA. The highest lactosehydrolysis (94.16%) and 23.9 g/l of glucose were recorded for flavored raw skim milk treated with 7.0 U/l milkof ?-gal at 6th day of storage period. The flavored milk made from raw full cream cow milk treated with 5.25 U/lof ?-gal was recorded the highest sensorial attributes scores followed by those of made from raw skim milk withthe same ?-gal level. It could be concluded that using of fungal ?-gal in lactose-free flavored milk may prove to bebeneficial for intolerant lactose people.

IMPACT OF ALGA FED BEE VENOM ON MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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Dairy goat mastitis is a disease of great economic importance worldwide as in dairy cows. Bee venom (BV) is synthesized in the venom glands of worker. It exhibits a variety of biological activity including anti-inflammatory effects and antibacterial action. The current study was intended to assess whether ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) has therapeutic potential against goats sub-clinical mastitis and improves the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk. Honey bees were fed pollen supplement diets containing a different conc. of Spirulinaplatensisalga (40, 50 and 60%). worker’s sealed brood, bee strength and Bee venom weight were determined. The effect of ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) on goats sub-clinical mastitis was investigated. Hematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed. Milk samples were cultured to isolate and identificate of responsible pathogens. Somatic cell count (SCC), chemical and bacteriological propertied of milk were determined. The results of bee feeding showed that the colonies fed pollen supplement diet containing 50 % S. platensis(GB) had the maximum bee venom weight, area of sealed worker brood and mean number of combs covered with bees. From animal data, the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment showed the highest hemoglobin, erythrocytes, Ig G level and the lowest leucocytes count in blood. The blood total protein, albumin and globulin levels slightly decreased in BV treated groups after 14 days of treatment compared to control group. Also, milk analysis revealed that the normal levels of casein, fat, lactose, calcium and the lowest counts of total bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, coliformes and somatic cells were recorded with the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment. Hence, alga- fed bee venom treatment increased the rate of bacteriological treatment and reduced SCC at gland compared with control. Isolated pathogenic bacteria were coagulase- negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and E. coli. It could be concluded that the sub -clinical mastitis goats - intramamary injection with alga -fed bee venom improves the immune response of animals against the etiological agent of mastitis, the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk and may be helpful in improving recovery in dairy goats

An Economic Study about the Efficiency of Using Water Resources to Produce some Agricultural Crops (Case Study in Gharbia Governorate)

Eman Elsayed Elfahl, Ahmed Nofal, 2020
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Summary: This study aimed to studying the economic efficiency of using the available water resources in producing some agricultural crops and trying to reach the maximum possible return in light of the available resources in the presence of a clear waste in the use of irrigation water in Egypt in general and in the middle of the delta in particular as a result of adopting the method of flooding irrigation, which leads to a high level Ground water, blockage of drains, and loss of fertilizer residual crops with wastewater, leading to deterioration of acre productivity, as well as a decrease in per capita food share. This study consists of three main chapters beside the introduction which includes; study problem, study goal, research method, data sources, and contents of this study. Chapter One includes clarify for some definitions which are found in the study and referential review for some previous studies relevant to the subject of the study. Chapter Two contains studying of Study the current situation of water resources and the efficiency of irrigation water management according to the different irrigation sources in Gharbia Governorate, while Chapter Three The results showed the following: 1- Fresh water in Gharbia Governorate during the study period decreased by 42.15%, and the average irrigation water needs are increasing by about 9.5%. 2- It was found that the average actual consumption of irrigation for wheat and rice in the center of Al-Mahalla Al-Kubra exceeds the water quotient allocated for irrigation of wheat and rice acres at a rate of change of about 62.45%, 27.9%, respectively, while the average actual consumption of water for irrigation of wheat and rice in the Zifta center exceeds more than The water rated for irrigation of wheat and rice acres at a rate of change of about 78.4% and 42.0%, respectively. 3- The average total costs of wheat acre production that was irrigated using both canal water, groundwater and mixture water in the Mahalla al-Kubra center is higher than the average costs of wheat acre production in the Zifta center by about 4.89%, 3.15%, and 5.94% each of them respectively, The average total costs of producing an acre of rice that was irrigated using both canal water, groundwater and mixture water in the Mahalla El-Kubra center is 17.72%, 15.14%, and 6.74% each of them respectively. 5- The total return to the total costs in the wheat crop that was irrigated using canal water in the two central Mahalla and Zifta areas reached its highest value compared to other irrigation sources as it reached about 1.65, 1.71 for both centers respectively, and the return of the pound invested in the production of wheat acres that was Irrigation using canal water the highest value by 0.651 and 0.707 pounds, respectively, The total return to the total costs in the rice crop that was irrigated using canal water in the two central Mahalla and the Zifta center reached its highest value compared to other irrigation sources as it reached about 1.76, 1.87 for both centers respectively, and the return of the pound invested in the production of rice acres that was Irrigation using canal water the highest value by 0.756 and 0.873 pounds, respectively. Chapter three contains four chapters dealing with the standard assessment of the impact of the most important economic factors on the amount of output from the study crops and to identify the most important problems of different irrigation sources and proposals for solutions. By studying the semantic relationship between the quantity of the output of wheat crop irrigated with canal water, groundwater and mixture water as a dependent variable, and some productive factors as interpreted variables, it was found that the most important factors with a positive effect on the amount of wheat output are the factor in the number of human work hours, and the amount Seed, and the amount of phosphate fertilizer, while the effect of the water element was negative, which indicates the existence of wastefulness in this resource. For rice crop irrigated with canal water, groundwater and mixture water, it was found that the most important factors that have a positive effect on the amount of wheat output is the element of the quantity of used seeds, and the amount of nitrate fertilizer, while the effect of the amount of irrigation water is negative, which means that there is excessive use of this Element.

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The Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research

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