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to provide legal and professional services for all ARC staff to protect their innovations and technological inventions.

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Achievments of ARC in 2018

18

Wheat Varieties

4830

tons field crops seeds

6301

Extension Field National Campaign

17

Vegetable Registeration

our latest publications All publications

Analyzing Agribusiness Value Chains: Asa Starter of Competitiveness in the Future

Youssef Hamada Abd El-rahman, 2021
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Within the value chain analysis, how much value is created is cannot be avoided, and how it is distributed. This is an extra accounting point of view, and we titled it a value assessment approach. Particularly for the context of agribusiness chains, the question of how much value each actor creates, and how it gets is on the constant discussion. Sincethe main characteristic of agri-food chains is the different farm and at farm gate marketstructures,whereprimarystagesshowaspectsofcompetitionwhile industry and distribution tend to show degrees of market power, this conductsfrequentconflictsbetweenactors.Beingabletodevelopindicators in this regard, helps to better understand and tackle those conflicts. Where, development organizations have been playing a central role enriching the body of point of view. Mainly with intervention objectives and with the aimofgivingtheirtechniciansatooltoworkwithvaluechainactors,there has been a proliferation of manuals and guidelines. This isimportant particularlytotheagri-foodsector,asdevelopingcountriesenterintofood globalvaluechainsasprimaryproducers,inmostcaseswithscarceornone value-added, and showing poor conditions for the actorsinvolved. Havingobtainedthesetools,approaches,andpointofviewsthatoperate asmethodologicalframeworksfortheanalysisofagribusinessvaluechains, and with a better understanding of the multidimensional aspects of the concept, further analysis should be oriented to develop mathematical framework models and objective indicators to measure competitiveness and performance in agribusiness value chains. Where,the aim of this research is to compare three methods of trace competitiveness and performanceinagribusinessvaluechains.TheeffectsofAgribusinessvalue chains assessment (AVCA), environmental agribusiness value chains assessment (EAVCA) and environmentally extended input-output agribusinessanalysis(EE-IOAA)asavaluechainconfirmedthattheentire waterconsumptionformaximumcultivationreducedby28.159and28.181% inside the old and new lands of Egypt and that the overall region of crops isprobably931749.034and319914.983hectaresplantedwithintheantique and new lands of Egypt, in addition to the anticipated model presents a higher net benefit than the current model. The general net profit of the heterogeneouscaseemergesas186530.800and69395.275millionEPbetter than the full of thehomogeneous case (166259.954 and 20074.227 million EP) after applying the model, further to the entire cost of crops in heterogeneouscase40629.067and13102.565millionEPthatdidnotreach thetotalhomogeneouscase(34968.102and8436.099millionEP).Thisend resultmayadditionallyimplythatthedistinctionamongtheheterogeneous instances had a massive impact on the optimal solution. According to financial and economic analyzes, the inner annual rate of return (IRR) became better than the current model of the area and increased by 14.98 and 118.32% within the vintage and new lands of Egypt, and the absolute riskofoptimalcultivationisdecreasedby23.31and65.61%.Forthisreason, the Agribusiness value chain assessment (AVCA) as a value chain can be applied in the agriculture sector within the land ofEgypt.

Efficient enzymatic conversion of lactose in milk using fungal?-galactosidase

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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?-galactosidase (?-gal, E.C. 3.2.1.23) was detected in different fungal cultures and their fermentation factors wereoptimized, as well as ?-gal was purified and characterized from the selected fungal strain. Moreover, the potential impact of fungal ?-gal on free lactose-flavored milk production was investigated. Aspergillus terreusNRRL 280showed the highest ?-gal specific activity which grown at 37 ?C for 7 days compared to other fungal strains. Also,A. terreusNRRL 280 showed their highest ?-gal activity at the optimized growth conditions of 37 ?C, pH 4.0 for 7days. ?-gal enzyme was purified from A. terreusNRRL 280 using 40-60% ammonium sulfate saturation with22.15% yield and 1.11 purification fold. Purified ?-gal exhibited their optimal activity at 60 ?C, pH 6.0, and 80min of incubation time, as well as it was is quite stable for the heat treatment. ?-gal activity was significantlyenhanced with 5 mM Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+, while it was were sensitive to Fe3+ and EDTA. The highest lactosehydrolysis (94.16%) and 23.9 g/l of glucose were recorded for flavored raw skim milk treated with 7.0 U/l milkof ?-gal at 6th day of storage period. The flavored milk made from raw full cream cow milk treated with 5.25 U/lof ?-gal was recorded the highest sensorial attributes scores followed by those of made from raw skim milk withthe same ?-gal level. It could be concluded that using of fungal ?-gal in lactose-free flavored milk may prove to bebeneficial for intolerant lactose people.

IMPACT OF ALGA FED BEE VENOM ON MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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Dairy goat mastitis is a disease of great economic importance worldwide as in dairy cows. Bee venom (BV) is synthesized in the venom glands of worker. It exhibits a variety of biological activity including anti-inflammatory effects and antibacterial action. The current study was intended to assess whether ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) has therapeutic potential against goats sub-clinical mastitis and improves the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk. Honey bees were fed pollen supplement diets containing a different conc. of Spirulinaplatensisalga (40, 50 and 60%). worker’s sealed brood, bee strength and Bee venom weight were determined. The effect of ordinary or alga-fed BV- injection (intramamary or subcutaneous) on goats sub-clinical mastitis was investigated. Hematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed. Milk samples were cultured to isolate and identificate of responsible pathogens. Somatic cell count (SCC), chemical and bacteriological propertied of milk were determined. The results of bee feeding showed that the colonies fed pollen supplement diet containing 50 % S. platensis(GB) had the maximum bee venom weight, area of sealed worker brood and mean number of combs covered with bees. From animal data, the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment showed the highest hemoglobin, erythrocytes, Ig G level and the lowest leucocytes count in blood. The blood total protein, albumin and globulin levels slightly decreased in BV treated groups after 14 days of treatment compared to control group. Also, milk analysis revealed that the normal levels of casein, fat, lactose, calcium and the lowest counts of total bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, coliformes and somatic cells were recorded with the goat, s group injected intramamary with alga- fed bee venom after 14 days of treatment. Hence, alga- fed bee venom treatment increased the rate of bacteriological treatment and reduced SCC at gland compared with control. Isolated pathogenic bacteria were coagulase- negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and E. coli. It could be concluded that the sub -clinical mastitis goats - intramamary injection with alga -fed bee venom improves the immune response of animals against the etiological agent of mastitis, the chemical and bacteriological quality of milk and may be helpful in improving recovery in dairy goats

Quality Characteristics of Processed Cheese Fortified with SpirulinaPowder

Baraka Abdelsalam Gomaa, 2020
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Spirulina is a rich source of nutrients viz., essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, carotenoids and vitamins. The study was carried out to evaluate of Spirulina maxima addition as source of nutrients, antioxidants and color on processed cheese properties. Materials and Methods: Processed cheese analogue treatments were supplemented with Spirulina maxima powder (1, 2 and 3%). The chemical, physical, color and sensorial properties of processed cheese analogue supplemented with S. maxima were evaluated through 3 months of cold storage (7EC). Also, the antioxidant capacity of S. maxima processed cheese analogue treatments was determined. Results: The spreadable processed cheese analogue with 3% S. maxima powder had higher chemical components except ash compared to control cheese. The results of physical properties showed that the penetrometer reading of the S. maxima processed cheese treatments was higher than those of control allover storage period, while oil separation and melt ability were lower. The S. maxima processed cheeses were more green (a-value) and lower whiter (L-value) than those of control. The highest free radical scavenging activity (57.24%) was recorded for S. maxima processed cheese analogue treatment (3%). From the sensorial results, the S. maxima processed cheese analogue (1 or 2%) treatments was higher acceptable compared to those of 3%. Conclusion: Hence, adding S. maxima powder (1 or 2%) during processed cheese analogue manufacture let the cheese to develop special color (green), high nutritional value, antioxidant activity and sensorial scores

Active Components of Squid Ink and Food Applications

Nesren Mohamed Bondk, 2020
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In Egypt, squid ink is disposed of during squid preparation, which may cause environmental pollution and health problems. Therefore, this study was carried out to make use of the active ingredients found in the squid ink as by-products. The chemical composition, the mineral, total phenols, and flavonoids contents of squid ink were determined. DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and antitumor activity of squid ink on human tumor cell line (Lung carcinoma cell line) were also tested beside its antimicrobial activity. Two mixtures of black or brown squid ink sauce were prepared. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was 91.66%. The results of the cell viability and toxicity assay of squid ink indicated that as the concentration of squid ink increased the viability percentages were decreased, while inhibitory activity percentages were increased. The IC50 [the concentration causing the death of 50% of the human tumor cell line (Lung carcinoma cell line A549)] was 22 ?g/mL. The results also indicated that the squid ink had antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus vulgaris with zone inhibitions of 19, 18, 12, 13, 11, 13, 12 and 10 mm, respectively. The overall acceptability scores of the black and brown squid ink sauces were 9.35 and 10, respectively. In conclusion, the formulated squid ink sauces with a strong odor, high acceptability, and different colors as well as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities can fulfill the desires of many consumers. Keywords: Squid ink, Anti-oxidant, Anti-microbial

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The Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research

is published quarterly by the Agricultural Research Center covers the results of research in different aspects of agricultural sciences in Arabic and English language .

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